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\Vinona Lake, Indiana 


WINTER 1973 

Vol. 14 


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Digitized by the Internet Archive , 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 


A publication of Grace Theological Seminary 




OF JESUS CHRIST Herman A. Hoyt 3 

TONGUES SHALL CEASE Gilbert B. Weaver 12 


GENESIS CREATION Marvin L. Goodman 25 



GRACE JOURNAL is published three times each year (Winter, Spring, Fall) by Grace Theological Seminary, in co- 
operation with the Grace Seminary Alumni Association. 

EDITORIAL POLICY: The editors of GRACE JOURNAL hold the historic Christian faith, and accept without reservation 
the inerrancy of Scripture and the premillennial view of eschatology. A more complete expression of their theological 
position may be found in the Statement of Faith of Grace Theological Seminary. The editors, however, do not 
necessarily endorse every opinion that may be expressed by individual writers in the JOURNAL. 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES: $2.00 per calendar year; single copy. 75*. 

ADDRESS: All subscriptions and review copies of books should be sent to GRACE JOURNAL. Box 397, Winona Lake, 
Indiana 46590. 

Copyright. 1973 by Grace Theological Seminary. All rights reserved. 


Published by 








HOMER A. KENT, JR., Editor 

JOHN C. WHITCOMB, JR., Managing Editor 

S. HERBERT BESS, Book Review Editor 

GRACE JOURNAL is indexed by 

FOR MOSHER LIBRARY (Dallas Theological Seminary) 


President, Grace Theological Seminary and Grace College 

This subject has led to a fruitful investigation that I never dreamed 
could be true. This has frequently been true in the order of my experi- 
ence. And it is this fact that has led me to be alert to the suggestions 
of others as the signposts along the way pointing in the direction of 
personal blessing for my own life. It was therefore without hesitation 
that I willingly grasped this opportunity. 

The apprehension of the significance of this investigation I was 
yet to learn. I am honest in admitting that in the course of my experi - 
ence I have never really examined my own call to the ministry in the 
light of the Word of God. I have never doubted that I was called, and 
it has been this fact that has sustained me through many crucial experi- 
ences. But in the larger picture of the divine call as set forth in the 
Bible, I had never pinpointed that call. 

The appointment to service for the Lord Jesus Christ has a variety 
of facets, each one lending force to that call and sealing it with finality. 
It is this larger perspective that helps the individual servant through the 
maze of difficulties he must inevitably encounter in the course of service 
and guarantees that he will fulfill his ministry with joy. It was this 
grand panorama of truth that brought the apostle Paul to that crucial 
moment when he was to depart and be with Christ, and which provided 
him with words of triumphant satisfaction: "For I am now ready to be 
offered, and the time of my departure is at hand. I have fought a good 
fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith" (II Tim. 4:6-7). 

The arrangement of specific points in this discussion does not 
necessarily follow a chronological order. With the call to the ministry 
as the central feature of this investigation, I have tried to cluster the 
other points about it in order to develop the picture of full perspective. 
Hence there are eight facets of truth to which I want to direct your 
attention. I will be using the word "ministry" in the course of this dis- 
cussion, and I do so in its broadest sense, keeping in mind that at its 
highest level there is the preaching of the word, the pastoral oversight 
of the flock, the proclamation of the gospel on the mission fields of the 



There is a "call" of God which invites all who hear to come for 
salvation. This is what Isaiah had in mind when he wrote the words: 
"Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath 
no money: come ye, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk with- 
out money, and without price" (Isa. 55:1). This is what Jesus was doing 
when he cried out, "Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of 
me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your 
souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light" (Matt. 11:28-30). 
But as you well know, this call may be resisted, as Stephen asserted, 
"Ye stiffnecked, and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always re- 
sist the Holy Ghost; as your fathers did, so do ye" (Acts 7:51). 

But there is a call of God to salvation which not only invites but 
actually brings sinners to salvation. It is this call to which the apostle 
Paul refers in writing to the Corinthian believers. "For ye see your 
calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many 
mighty, not many noble are called" (I Cor. 1:26). There are not many 
who receive this call, but those who do actually come to Christ that it 
might be apparent in the final analysis "That no flesh should glory in 
his presence" (I Cor. 1:29), because it is ultimately a work of God in 
grace. That is the fuller import of Romans 8:28-30. "And we know 
that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them 
who are the called according to his purpose. For whom he did fore- 
know, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his son 
that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover, whom 
he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he 
also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified" (Rom. 8: 

Associated with this efficacious call to salvation the call to service 
is intimately related. Chronologically this may be immediate, or it may 
be more remotely separated. But one thing is certain, that when God 
saves men, he saves them for something. "For we are his workman- 
ship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before 
ordained that we should walk in them" (Eph. 2:10). Though it may be 
argued that this has reference to the moral quality of our works, Rom- 
ans 12:1-2 points directly to that particular area of works that fulfill the 
will of God in position and service. Paul insists that "now hath God 
set the members every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased him" 
(I Cor. 12:18). And as for the distribution of gifts for service, "the 
manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal" (I Cor. 


In the experience of some, the call to service is almost simul- 
taneous with the efficacious call to salvation. This was true for the 
apostle Paul (Acts 9:3-6; Gal. 1:15-16). It was true for Isaiah (Isa. 6: 
6-8) and for Jeremiah (Jer. 1:4-7). But for others it is separated from 
the experience of salvation by a period of time: sometimes short and 
sometimes more lengthy. But in either case it is associated with that 
efficacious call to salvation. And "the gifts and calling of God are with- 
out repentance" (Rom. 11:29). In the same sense in which the efficacious 
call of God to salvation is sure and steadfast, so also is the effective 
call of God to service. 


This includes equipment in terms of spiritual impartation. In 
the first epistle to the Corinthians the information on this point extends 
to the entire membership of the saved (I Cor. 12:7,18). This is also 
affirmed in the epistle to the Romans (12:3-6), and in the epistle to the 
Ephesians (Eph. 4:7-8). The same can also be said for the first epistle 
of Peter (I Pet. 4:10-11). In Corinthians, Romans, and Ephesians, the 
text goes right on to lay emphasis upon the gifts given those who serve 
in the eldership, evangelism, and diakonate. Paul's letters to Timothy 
seem to single out the place of ministry occupied by the pastor or elder 
(I Tim. 1:18). At the time he was set aside for the ministry a special 
gift for the task was imparted (I Tim. 4:14; II Tim. 1:6). It is this 
essential impartation that binds together all the spiritual, moral, and 
mental qualities that one may possess in common with many other Chris- 
tians that enables him to perform the task of ministry. 

I am sure this also includes equipment in terms of spiritual 
instruction. Nothing will take the place of information to guide one in 
the task he undertakes for the Lord. That is undoubtedly what the Lord 
had in mind when He called the disciples into service. He said, "Follow 
me and I will make you fishers of men" (Matt. 4:19), or as stated in 
Mark's Gospel, "Come ye after me, and I will make you to become 
fishers of men" (Mk. 1:17). From that point on there followed three 
and one -half years of the most intensive theological training ever expe- 
rienced by a servant of the Lord. Over and over again the record 
indicates that He taught them, and unlike others He taught them with 
authority (Matt. 7:29). This included not only theoretical presentation 
of the truth, but there was also an internship for the disciples in which 
they saw His teaching in relation to the actual realities of life. Out of 
this has grown the principle for schools that Paul passed on to Timothy. 
"And the things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the 
same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others 
also" (II Tim. 2:2). 

It must also be added that this includes equipment in terms of 
spiritual improvement. The maturing process is a part of the method 


of equipping for service. The impartation and the instruction must be 
subjected to exercise. That explains why Paul warned Timothy not to 
hold lightly the gift imparted to him (I Tim. 4:14), and to stir it up, 
renew it, set it on fire by actual exercise (II Tim. 1:6). By continuing 
in the knowledge of the word of God one is nourished up in the words of 
faith and good doctrine (I Tim. 4:6) and perfected for the work of min- 
istry (II Tim. 3:14-17). The road of experience was traveled by the 
Lord Jesus to bring Him to maturity (Heb. 5:8-9), and it is no less needed 
by those who serve under him (Rom. 5:3-5). And the only way to get 
experience is to get it. This explains why Paul warned Timothy about 
avoiding the mistake of thrusting men into the ministry who are new 
converts (I Tim. 3:6). This tempering process is also a way of sifting 
out those who do not mean business for the Lord, as well as safeguarding 
the heritage of the Lord. 


"And he gave some apostles; and some, prophets; and some, 
evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers. " (Eph. 4:11). That is the 
way the Bible describes the gifted person in relation to the Church. 

The impartation of spiritual gifts is intended to qualify for service. 
Christ gave gifts unto men (Eph. 4:7-8) but not for the sake of the gift 
itself, nor for the sake of the men upon whom the gift was conferred. 
This sovereign act of the risen Lord was to enable for service. This 
service was to be directed toward men: some within the church and some 
on the outside of the church. It was for the perfecting of the saints, 
for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ 
(Eph. 4:12). 

The qualification for service exhibits itself in performance. It 
is for perfecting, ministering, building up. A gifted person who does 
not function is an anomaly. In the very nature of the case a person who 
is gifted must exercise that gift. Anything short of movement, maneuver- 
ing, motion in the exercise and discharge of a gift is unthinkable. It 
is performance that gives clear indication of the possession of a gift. 
Since it is a grace bestowed by the Spirit, then activity which is the 
essential nature of the Spirit must be present in the gifted person. 

The performance in service results in the conferring of benefits 
on men. The manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man for the 
common good (I Cor. 12:7). It is that exercise of the gift in the behalf 
of men that makes one a minister. As Christ said of Himself, he came 
not to be ministered unto but to minister (Matt. 20:28). As a result of 
this ministration, there is the mending of the flaws in the fabric of the 
Church, the addition of new members to the Church, the maturing of 
the membership of the Church, and at last the full perfection of the 
Church (Eph. 4:12-16). 



The call to the ministry comes from an objective source. I am 
stating this first, because there are those who would like to confine the 
call to a mere subjective reaction on the part of the minister. Over and 
over again in the Old Testament it is declared that the word of the Lord 
came unto the prophet. Isaiah declared, "Also I heard the voice of the 
Lord, saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us" (Isa. 6:8). 
Jeremiah wrote, "Then the • word of the Lord came unto me, saying, 
Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou earnest 
forth out of the womb I sanctified thee; and I ordained thee a prophet 
unto the nations" (Jer. 1:4-5). No one would question the objectivity of 
the voice of Christ to Peter and Andrew, "Follow me, and I will make 
you fishers of men" (Matt. 4:19). But it was no less objective when the 
Holy Spirit spoke through the prophets at Antioch, "Separate me Barnabas 
and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them" (Acts 13:2). 

But the call to the ministry creates a subjective consciousness. 
This we may refer to as the mystical movement of the Spirit in the 
hearts of men. Though Jeremiah experienced every human indignity at 
the hands of his own people, and the very force of the persecution that 
fell upon him led him to say, "I will not make mention of him, nor 
speak anymore in his name," yet he had to confess that "his word was 
in mine heart as a burning fire shut up in my bones, and I was weary 
with forbearing, and I could not stay" (Jer. 20:9). The consciousness 
of God's call and the critical need for the message of the Lord among 
his own people drove him on. This same driving passion was felt by 
Paul. "For though I preach the gospel, I have nothing to glory of: for 
necessity is laid upon me; yea, woe is unto me, if I preach not the gos- 
pel" (I Cor. 9:16). 

The call to the ministry combines the objective and subjective in 
the person. A singular movement in the narrative in the book of Acts 
brings this to view. Paul and Silas had reached Troas. There in the 
night a vision appeared to Paul. It was a man from Macedonia beckoning 
to them to come over into Macedonia and help them. Luke then draws 
the conclusion, "And after he had seen the vision, immediately we en- 
deavored to go into Macedonia, assuredly gathering that the Lord had 
called us for to preach the gospel unto them" (Acts 16:10). The words, 
"assuredly gathering" means combining, and in this case a combination 
of the objective and the subjective. Paul had a deep subjective experi- 
ence growing out of the vision. Then perhaps the man of Macedonia 
appeared in the person of Luke and confirmed his experience. At this 
point in the book of Acts the "we" sections appear for the first time, 
suggesting that Luke joined the party at this stage of the journey. This 
may mean that Luke was the man from Macedonia. 



The place of sobriety in evaluating the call of God is urged upon 
believers. That is the point of Romans 12:3, "For I say through the 
grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of 
himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think soberly, accord- 
ing as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith. " I think Paul 
is saying that there is little doubt that the probabilities are that a man 
will be apt to think he is greater than he really is. Therefore, when 
seeking the will of God for his life, he is most apt to pick out the high- 
est position as the one he is qualified to fill. It is therefore necessary 
to admonish believers to exercise sobriety. This means to see them- 
selves as they really are. A drunk man never sees things in perspective. 
But a man who is drunk with self also has an impaired vision. So the 
believer must to the best of his ability, according to the measure of 
faith granted to him, try to evaluate his call. Perhaps it would be well 
for a man to insist that he has been called, but put the period right 
there and wait for more light as to the place and position to which he 
is called. 

The proof of spirituality in evaluating the call of God is the willing- 
ness to submit to the evaluation of Spirit-led men. To members of the 
Church in Corinth, who were insisting on their call to speak in tongues 
Paul had to write, "What! came the word of God out from you? or came 
it unto you only? If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual 
let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the command- 
ments of the Lord" (I Cor. 14:36-37). This is the way of saying that 
the Church is a fellowship where the things of God are shared in common. 
It is therefore possible for other men who are indwelt by the Spirit of 
God to examine and evaluate the movements of God in the calling of men 
to the ministry and the gifts they have been furnished with to discharge 
that ministry. This is the way God uses to measure the subjective con- 
sciousness of men and see that it squares with objective reality. It was 
this kind of man Paul chose to join him in the ministry: Timothy, a son 
in the faith, brought up in the words of Scripture, and endowed with a 
gift for ministry (Acts 16:1-2; I Tim. 4:14; II Tim. 1:6; 3:14-15). 

The potentialities for service will parallel the call to ministry 
and satisfy spiritual men. It is my opinion that Peter had this in mind 
when he wrote his first epistle, "As every man hath received the gift, 
even so minister the same one to another, as good stewards of the man- 
ifold grace of God. If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of 
God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God 
giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to 
whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen" (I Pet. 4:10- 
11). Perhaps he was thinking of the parable of the talents. The par- 
ticular task or treasure delivered into the hands of the servants was 
upon the basis of their ability (Matt. 25:14-15). It is probably correct 


to assert that God never calls a man to a task for which he does not 
have the ability to discharge. If it is correct that Christ calls men into 
the ministry, then as of old, He is making them to be fishers of men. 
And this fact of ability will be sufficiently patent so that spiritual men 
recognize it. 


The divine person who calls a man into the ministry is a free 
spirit (Psa. 51:12). Even though we have developed systematic theologies 
for the purpose of arranging everything about God in a very fixed arrange- 
ment, it is still true that God is free. He works all things after the 
counsel of his own will (Eph. 1:11). "All the inhabitants of the earth are 
reputed as nothing: and he doeth according to his will in the army of 
heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth; and none can stay his 
hand, or say unto him, What does thou?" (Dan. 4:35). After we do our 
best to systematize His movements, it is only to learn that He will not 
be contained within the narrow limitations of our systems. 

But the divine principle of operation usually follows a fixed course. 
It would appear that God calls men by His spirit through the written or 
spoken word. Before there was a written revelation God spoke directly 
to men in and through His prophets (Heb. 1:1). While New Testament 
revelation was being compiled he did the same thing. Since then it ap - 
pears that God has chosen, at least as far as we know, to use the Bible 
directly or spoken through the mouths of men to call men into service. 
But even here we need to be careful that we do not erect a system which 
limits God. Yet on the other hand, we do need to follow the principle 
He uses so that there might be fruit for him. In any case, the mysteries 
of God are revealed to men by His spirit, for the Spirit searcheth all 
things, yea the deep things of God (I Cor. 2:10). 

However, the divine pattern of operation is almost as various as 
people. There are probably no two people who are called into service 
under the same set of circumstances. Abraham was called out of the 
Ur of the Chaldees. God spoke to Isaac in the midst of a famine. From 
a rocky pillow Jacob received his call. Moses met God in a flaming 
bush. Isaiah saw the glory of God in the temple. God called Jeremiah 
in those dark days at the dissolution of the Southern Kingdom. Christ 
met some of the disciples by the seaside. But he met Nathaniel under 
the fig tree. Paul was arrested on the way to Damascus when a great 
light shone from heaven. 

Without a doubt there are as many variations to the call of God 
into service as there are people. And yet each person is convinced that 
he met God in a singular fashion, so that the result was a clear con- 
viction that there had been a transaction with God. To me, that event 


is as vivid as if it were yesterday. There was no fanfare, no public 
service, no emotional ecstacy; just the logic of the word of God put to 
me by a pastor in his home. I agreed to this fact, and from this fact 
I have never had reason to turn in now more than forty-one years. 


The call of God is guaranteed by the faithfulness of God. "Faith- 
ful is he that calleth you, who also will do it" (I Thess. 5:24). There 
is no reason why we cannot claim this verse for the work into which he 
has called us. For the call to salvation and the work to which we are 
called is bound up together. God called us for something. It therefore 
follows that He will perform His part so that we can likewise perform 
ours. This should therefore be sufficient reason to take heart, no mat- 
ter how hard the going may be, for we shall succeed in ours. Christ 
said to his own, "Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, that 
ye should go and bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should remain: 
that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give 
it you" (John 15:16). 

The call of God provides for every contingency along the way. 
"And we know that all things work together for good to them that love 
God, to them that are the called according to his purpose" (Rom. 8:28). 
This means that one must succeed. There is not a place, a person, a 
problem, or a peril that He cannot control in such a way, that pursuing 
the path He has appointed for us we shall not succeed. "If God be for 
us, who can be against us?" (Rom. 8:31). In all the things that would 
ordinarily stand as insuperable barriers to success, we are more than 
conquerors through Him that loved us (Rom. 8:37). Once we have joined 
the army of the redeemed, there is only one direction to move and that 
is forward to perfection (Heb. 6:1). For we are not of those who shrink 
back (Heb. 10:39). 

But that calls for God's definition of success. In Romans 8:28, 
all that is declared is that all things work together for good. But is 
not good also success? Have we not erected human standards of success 
to which we give such abject devotion that many have lost heart in the 
struggle and have therefore turned back in the way? Would Noah have 
been termed a success by our standards? Would Lot have had any place 
for remembrance? And where would Isaiah have been placed? God told 
him that he would not in the sense of numbers succeed (Isa. 6:10-12), 
and the words to Isaiah became the words to measure the ministry of 
the Lord Jesus (Matt. 13:14-15). The success of all these was not to be 
found in numbers or great achievement, but in faithfulness to the command 
the Lord gave them. In this there is great success, for at last when 
the judge of all weighs the exploits of His servants, His rule of measure 
will not be the standards of men. And He will say, "Well done, thou 
good and faithful servant . . . enter thou into the joy of thy Lord " (Matt. 



In that moment of embarkation upon the ministry, there is a 
flash of spiritual illumination that brings together in remarkable harmony 
the human and the divine elements and seals the combination with an air 
of finality. On the divine side, the person who is called grasps the 
fact that "the gifts and calling of God are without repentance" (Rom. 11: 
29). On the human side there is determination to make his calling and 
election sure (II Pet. 1:10). This paves the way for the path of faith. 

This is marked by presentation of the body by faith as a living 
sacrifice (Rom. 12:1). This is not an act performed under compulsion. 
It is a free act performed with gladness as an act of spiritual worship. 
It places the Lord in full control and direction from this point on. 

The life is marked by persistence in the face of difficulty (Rom. 
5:3-4). The minister must face the discouraging and disheartening things 
that belong to a world of sin and are felt especially by those who elect 
to engage in the fight of faith. But tribulation works persistence, not 
defeat. And amidst the self-control he must exercise there will also 
appear the flower of endurance. 

There will be progression in method as a result of developing 
experience (Rom. 5:4). Persistence to move toward the goal in spite 
of the difficulties that crowd the way is bound to bring one into an ever 
expanding experience. The methods that failed to accomplish the desired 
ends will be abandoned in favor of better methods. In fact, failures will 
throw one on the Lord and send him back to the word for a more careful 
examination of the methods of the Spirit. 

Perseverance to the end will mark the movement of the man of 
God truly called of Him. In some sense the apostle Paul gathered this 
entire idea up and expressed it as follows: "But I keep under my body, 
and bring it into subjection: lest that by any means, when I have preached 
to others, I myself should be a castaway" (I Cor. 9:27). Not even the 
united pressure of all his friends could turn him aside from the task 
that was so clear to him. "But none of these things move me, neither 
count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish my course with 
joy, and the ministry which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to tes- 
tify the gospel of the grace of God" (Acts 20:24). 


Associate Professor of Biblical Studies 
John Brown University 

One of the most spectacular phenomena of the Christian faith 
during the past century has been a resurgence of an early church prac- 
tice called "speaking with tongues. " This phenomenon is purportedly 
a divinely-given ability to speak in a language unknown to the speaker. 

Upon encountering individuals or groups that practice this, the 

young Christian is wont to ask of his spiritual counselors, "Are we 

missing something? If we are rightly related to the Lord, shouldn't 
we be displaying this gift, just as did the early church?" 

When the Scriptures and church history are consulted on the 
question the following facts stand out: 

(1) In the book of Acts there are three examples of early Chris- 
tians speaking in tongues. (2:4; 10:46; 19:6) 

(2) In the epistles there is only one treatise on the use of 
tongues as a spiritual gift, I Corinthians 12-14. 

(3) When church history is examined, it is clear that the use 
of tongues did not continue past the apostolic age. Tongues were already 
a thing of the past in the early part of the second century. With few 
exceptions, not until the last part of the nineteenth century has any group 
claimed to have this gift. 

(4) Turning back to the Scriptures, it is discovered that in the 
heart of Paul's treatise on tongues there is the statement that tongues 
are not permanent- -that they are destined to cease (I Cor. 13:8). 

Upon examining the facts there are the following two possibilities: 
(1) The gift of tongues will cease when the church age is over. For 
some reason it was neglected for 1750 years, but now it is having a 
genuine, God-given resurgence. (2) The gift of tongues was given 
along with certain other temporary gifts (also mentioned as stopping in 
I Corinthians 13) to fulfill a definite need in the first century church. 
Now this need has been fulfilled, and the gift has long since ceased. 



The modern tongues movement is not a genuine continuation of the first 
century phenomena, but rather it originates from some other source. 

In order to determine which of these opposing views is correct, 
it is necessary to examine the statement "tongues shall cease" to deter- 
mine the following facts: 

(1) What is meant by "tongues" in I Corinthians 13:8? 

(2) What is meant by the verb "to cease"? 

(3) Under what conditions are tongues to cease? 

(4) When are the conditions fulfilled? 


Its Use in the Book of Acts 

There are three clear references to the gift of tongues in the 
book of Acts. These are found in 2:4, 10:46, and 19:16. Each of these 
will be examined in turn to determine the meaning of the term as it is 
used there. 

(1) Acts 2:4 . On the day of Pentecost, as promised by the 
resurrected Christ, the Holy Spirit came upon the waiting disciples. 
Verse four says, "And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost and 
began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance" 
(KJV). The context explains what is meant by glossais: 

a. The term is modified by heterais which means "another of 
a different, or strange kind. " Hence it was not the natural language 
of the speaker. 

b. In verses 5-7 the Jews from every nation heard the speakers 
in their "own languages ( dialektoi) wherein we were born" (v. 8). Thus 
the tongues were in the actual languages of men. 

c. The content of the speaking in the different languages is given 
in verse 11: "The wonderful works of God" were being declared to them . 

(2) Acts 10:46. When the Gospel began to go to Gentiles Peter 
was commissioned to evangelize a Gentile named Cornelius. When he 
preached to him the Holy Spirit came upon the hearers, so that the 
believing Jews were astonished: "For they heard them speak with 
tongues, and magnify God." Again the following facts may be noted: 

a. In the context Peter identifies this as the same phenomenon 
that they had received in Acts 2, so that this also must have been with 
human languages, even though strange to the Apostle and his party. 


b. The content of the speaking is revealed to be megalunonton , 
exalting, extolling, glorifying, or as simply praising God. 

(3) Acts 19:6. On this last occurrence mentioned in Acts, Paul 
has discovered some disciples of John the Baptist who have been unaware 
of the fulfillment of that which John preached and the establishment of 
the church. After resting their faith in Jesus as Messiah (v. 4), they 
were baptized in His name (v. 5). "And when Paul had laid his hands 
upon them, the Holy Ghost came upon them; and they spake with tongues 
and prophesied" (v. 6). 

a. This is the same phenomenon, and is described in almost 
identical phraseology as the previous references. They were speaking 
with strange but human languages. 

b. There is the additional use of a second spiritual gift on this 
occasion- -prophesying. 

c. The content is not stated at this point, as this has been 
established in the first two references. There is no reason to suppose 
that this occurrence was any different. 

The Use of the Term in I Corinthians 12-14 

Paul devotes three chapters of I Corinthians to the place of tongues 
in the church. In chapter 12 he established the place of gifts in general. 
In chapter 13 he relates the gifts to that supreme grace of the Christian 
life, love. In chapter 14 he sets the gift of tongues in its relatively 
inferior place as compared with the gift of prophecy. A study of these 
chapters with regard to Paul's usage of glossai will help in determining 
the meaning of the term. 

Paul begins the section by introducing his new subject. In 12:1 
he writes, "But now concerning pneumatikon, brothers, I do not wish 
you to be ignorant. " Here the term pneumatikon simply means "spiri- 
tualities, " rather than "spiritual gifts. " Many commentators take the 
term to include both the teaching on gifts and the resurrection, in 
contract to the thrust of the first eleven chapters, on the "carnalities. " 
In any case, the term "gifts" charismata is not introduced until verse 

The first list of spiritual gifts occurs in verses 8-10: 

(1) The message of wisdom (logos sophias ) 

(2) The message of knowledge ( logos gnoseos) 

(3) Faith ( pistis ) 

(4) Gifts of healing (charismata iamaton) 


(5) Workings of miracles ( energemata dunamaton) 

(6) Prophecy ( propheteia) 

(7) Discerning of spirits (diaxriseis pneumat5n) 

(8) Kinds (families) of tongues (gene g!5sson) 

(9) Interpretation of tongues ( hermeneia gloss5n ) 

In verse 28 and following Paul repeats the list with modifications, 
placing them in order of importance. He also presents them in terms 
of the person (e.g., prophet) instead of the gift itself (prophecy) in at 
least the first three cases: 

(1) Apostles ( apostolous) 

(2) Prophets ( prophetas) 

(3) Teachers (didaskalous) 

(4) Workers of miracles (dunameis) 

(5) Ones having gifts of healing ( charismata iamaton ) 

(6) Ones able to do helpful deeds ( antilempseis ) 

(7) Ones able to govern or administer (kuberneseis) 

(8) Ones having kinds of tongues ( gene gloss5n) 

Paul then repeats the list to show that not all have all the gifts. 
In doing this he drops "helpful deeds" and "administrations" but adds 
last the gift of interpreting tongues. 

During the first few verses of chapter 13, Paul mentions the 
futility of having gifts but not exercising love. The gifts mentioned 

(1) Tongues (glossais) 

(2) Prophecy (propheteian) 

(3) Faith ( pistin ) 

In connection with the second one, "prophecy, " it is uncertain if the 
"mysteries" and "knowledge" are part of the gift of prophecy or separate 

In chapter 14:1 he encourages the Corinthians to pursue love, and 
seek spiritualities, but to prefer prophecy, because the one speaking 
in tongues is not speaking to men, but to God. Paul's argument in 
chapter 14 is that the purpose of believers coming together is to edify 
the church. Tongues without interpretation do not do this, because they 
are directed to God, and if they are uninterpreted, only He can under- 
stand them. Speaking in tongues without interpretation does not build 
up the Church. The tongues would be a sign to any unbelieving Israelite 
who was present (cf. vv. 21, 22), but to unbelievers in general the 
impression would be given that the Christians were crazy (cf. w. 23, 
24). So prophecy is preferred as a gift to be exercised in the church, 
and the gift of tongues may be exercised only if there is someone 


present with the gift of interpretation of tongues so that the believers 
may understand and be built up. 

In 14:26 Paul lists the gifts as they were used in a typical wor- 
ship service: 

(1) One with a psalm (psalmon) 

(2) Another with a teaching (didachen) 

(3) Another with a revelation (apokalupsin) 

(4) Another with a tongue (gloss an ) 

(5) Another with an interpretation (hermeneian) 

Observations and Conclusion 

(1) Paul mentions about thirteen different gifts: wisdom, know- 
ledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophecy, discerning spirits, tongues, 
interpretation of tongues, apostleship, teaching, helping, and adminis- 

(2) At times Paul refers to the gift itself by name (as, prophecy) , 
at other times he refers to the person who has the gift (as prophet) , 
or to the content of the produced by the gift (as, word of wisdom) . 

(3) Tongues, then, is a spiritual gift which certain individuals 
possessed by divine bestowal. In function the gift permitted the person 
to address God in a strange language, which was a sign to unbelieving 
Jews, but for which most Christians in Corinth needed an interpreter 
in order to be blessed or built up in the faith. The content of the 
message spoken in tongues was pure praise to God for His person and 
His works. 

The Usage of glossais in I Corinthians 13:8-12 

In 13:8 Paul states that prophecy, tongues, and knowledge will 
all cease. The question arises, in which sense of these terms is Paul 
using them here? 

To begin with, Paul must be using all of the nouns in the same 
way, since the two verbs he uses with them are synonymous in meaning. 
Also, both verbs are alike in that with both, the idea of "cease" or 
"become inoperative" implies some action taking place which is brought 
to a halt. Thus he must be referring to the act of prophesying, and 
the act of receiving or imparting knowledge, the act of speaking in 
tongues and not the content or message produced by the act in each 

Stanley D. Toussaint, however, attempts to prove that the terms 


in verse 8 refer to content rather than the act. He writes: 

The content of knowledge and prophecy that was known 
in the early church and has been recorded in God's 
inspired Word will be rendered inoperative when Christ 
comes for His own. The knowledge and prophecies 
in the Word are accurate and certain of fulfillment, 
but they are partial. The full revelation of Christ's 
presence will so completely over shadow these that 
they will be rendered inoperative [italics mine]. 1 

How the content of any message can cease to operate is not clear to 
this writer. The act of revelation to a prophet may cease, or the 
prophet himself may cease functioning, but the term rendered inopera- 
tive may not properly be applied to the content of a message. 

Toussaint's contextual arguments for this point are as follows: 

(1) Comparing I Corinthians 12:8 with 13:8, in the first reference 
the gift is called the word of knowledge, which looks at the expression 
of knowledge. The latter use in 13:8 is simply gnosis, which he avers 
looks at what is known, or the knowledge itself . But here it seems 
Toussaint makes a comparison that is not to the point. The proper 
contrast is between the gift itself and the content transmitted by its use. 
Both terms he uses, the expression of knowledge, and what is known, 
refer to the content of knowledge. But Paul in 13:8 must be referring 
to the gift itself. Only a gift can cease to function or be rendered 
inoperative. The content of a message can be complete or incomplete, 
true or false, but it cannot be operative or cease to operate. 

(2) His next argument is that the knowing in part, verse 9, 
refers to the content more than the act. This may be agreed to, as 
Paul is arguing that because of limited content the functioning of the 
gift will cease. But this does not prove the contention Toussaint tries 
to make it prove, that in verse 8 Paul is speaking of content. Rather, 
the limitation of content in verse 9 is the reason for the cessation of 
action in verse 8. 

(3) I Corinthians 14:6 brings knowledge and prophesying together 
where the last term, doctrine, indicates that the preceding terms refer 
to content. But its use in 14:6 does not establish how he uses it in 13:8. 
Indeed, a closer usage of the term is in 13:2, where he uses the noun 
propheteian with the verb echo, clearly meaning the gift or ability to 
prophesy, rather than the content of the prophecy. 



I Corinthians 13:8 means that the charismatic gift of tongues, that 
ability of some Christians of Paul's day to address God in a strange but 
human language, will be made to cease. 


The verb "cease" is the word pau5 . For this verb in the middle 
voice, Arndt and Gingrich list these possible meanings: to stop, cease, 
have finished, be at an end. The use of the middle voice here may 
not be exaggerated in importance, since extra-biblical sources record 
its common usage in the middle, as of the ending of a festival, and 
of words coming to an end. 

The corresponding gifts of knowledge and prophecy are both like- 
wise to come to an end. The verb used to describe the termination of 
these gifts is katargeo , which Paul here uses in the future passive. 
Arndt and Gingrich suggest that in the passive it may signify: to cease 
or to pass away. II Corinthians 3:7, 11, and 13 use it as a substantive: 
that which is transitory, and I Corinthians 13:8 and 10, what is imperfect 
shall pass away. 

The difference between the two verbs, pauo and katargeo is some - 
times exaggerated. Their closeness as synonyms is plain in that both 
may be at times translated cease . The differences between them in 
Paul's usage here appears to lie in the nature of the subject of each 
verb. Both the gift of prophecy and the gift of knowledge are involved 
in the process of transmission of information from God to man, which 
is called revelation (apokalupsis) . On the other hand, the gift of 
tongues is the ability to offer praise from man to God in a strange 
language. This essential difference between the knowledge and prophetic 
gifts on the one hand and the gift of tongues on the other is sufficient 
basis for Paul's using different verbs to indicate their cessation. 


In I Corinthians 13:8 Paul states that tongues will cease, along 
with prophecy and knowledge, without giving a reason in that verse. 
This is because he is there emphasizing the contrast between love and 
the gifts. However, in verses 9 and 10 he introduces the reasons for 
the cessation of the gifts. A negative reason is introduced by the gar 
of verse 9. Their lack of endurance is because, after all, they are 
only incomplete at best. Each prophet is given only a partial glimpse 
into the spectrum of God's truth, as his message is only to meet the 
need of the moment! (Compare Peter's statement of the O. T. prophets 
being conscious of their limitation in this way, I Peter 1:10-12.) 


In verse 10 Paul states the positive reason. There is coming 
something better, something complete (to tele ion ) in contrast to the 
incomplete ( to ek merous ). The adverb hotan, "when, " shows Paul 
expects it to come, but the time is not known to him. 

The adjective tele ion is at the heart of the dispute. Its basic 
meaning is perfect, or complete . Warren E. Tamkin lists three major 
views as to its interpretation:-^ 

(1) The Parousia View. This view holds that at the coming of 
Christ the perfect state of affairs will be ushered in. Thus these 
spiritual gifts are all to continue to the end of this age. He states that 
Hodge, Lenski, A. T. Robertson and others hold this view. Typical 
comments follow: 

Leon Morris in the Tyndale New Testament Commentary series 
writes, "Over against the permanence of love, Paul sees the certain 
passing away of gifts on which the Corinthians set much store .... 
In the very presence of God there will be no reason and no place for 
ecstatic speech. "^ 

In the I. C. C. , Robertson and Plummer write, "Tongues were 
a rapturous mode of addressing God; and no such rapture would be needed 
when the spirit was in His immediate presence. " 4 

Meyer states that "Prophecy, speaking with tongues, and deep 
knowledge are only appointed for the good of the church for the time 
until the Parousia; afterwards these temporary phenomena fall away. "^ 
(emphasis his). 

(2) The Modified Parousia View. This view is like the first, 
except that some of the charismata of the Spirit may cease to function 
earlier than the coming of Christ. Exponents of this view include 
Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown, Ironside, Findlay, and Toussaint. 
Since this view takes much the same view of I Corinthians 13:10 as the 
Parousia view, it will not be considered separately. 

(3) The Canonical View. This position holds that Paul refers 
to the completed canon of the New Testament. When he wrote I Corinthians, 
many of his own epistles were not yet written, along with I and II Peter, 
Hebrews, Luke, and Acts, John's Gospel and Epistles, Jude and the 

Defense of the Canonical View 

The Canonical view must be considered correct for the following 


reasons. Logically, to tele ion must refer to completeness or perfection 
in the same realm as that referred to by to ek merous. Since to ek 
merous refers to the transmission of divine truth by revelation, the 
other term, to tele ion must refer to God's complete revelation of truth, 
the entire New Testament (taken of course with its foundational book, 
the Old Testament). The following considerations are pertinent: 

(a) Verse 9 associates ek merous with knowing , which in the 
context of chapters 12-14 means a divinely given capacity to understand 
and perceive divine truth, that is, to see into the nature of things. It 
likewise associates the term with prophesying, and this function is that 
of being a spokesman for God, to bring a direct and immediate revelation 
of God's will for His people in any given situation (cf. 14:30). Thus 
both terms are in the realm of the revelation of God's truth to men. 

(b) Both things referred to are in the neuter gender: 

(c) In John 14:25 and 26 Christ contrasts the truth He has given 
with those He will give to the disciples (tauta, these things, also neuter). 
This is directly parallel with Paul's statement in I Corinthians 13:10. In 
John 16:12 and 13 Christ promises the eventual writing of the epistles 
("all truth") and the Apocalypse ("things to come"). It must have been 
apparent to the Apostle Paul that as yet all the Scripture had not been 
written, that all realms of truth had not yet been dealt with in the as 
yet partial New Testament writings. 

In conclusion, to teleion must refer to the complete revelation 
of God's truth as promised by Christ, i.e., the complete Word of God, 
the Bible. 

Consideration of the Parous ia View 

The chief argument for making to teleion refer to the parous ia 
of Christ is drawn from verse 12: "For now we see through a glass, 
darkly, but then face to face: now I know in part; but then I shall 
know even as also I am known. " Toussaint writes, 

That which is perfect in verse ten is explained in 
verse twelve. Few would controvert the idea that 
verse twelve is anticipating the return of Christ for 
His own. The "perfect" thing then is the rapture and 

A closer look at Paul's argument will reveal that making the 
"face-to-face" refer to the Lord's return is not a required interpretation, 
although the terminology of Paul's illustrations seem to suggest the pre- 
sense of the believer with his Lord. 


Verse 11 and 12 contain three illustrations of the relationship of 
to ek merous to to teleion . In verse 11 the illustration gives a reason 
for the cessation of the three gifts. The period of the use of the gifts 
is like the period of childhood in understanding (prophecy or knowledge), 
speaking (tongues) and thinking (knowledge or prophecy). The period of 
to teleion is like the period of adulthood, when the ways of childhood are 
put away (katargeo, the same verb as in verse 8). There are no more 
incomplete childish concepts, childlike reasonings, and childish babblings 
for the mature man. 

In verse 12 the two illustrations tell why to teleion is superior to 
to ek merous. The first illustration is of seeing a man's face in the 
polished but imperfect surface of a brass mirror (Corinth was famous 
for its mirrors) in contrast with seeing him directly, face to face. To 
refer this to the rapture and presence of the believer "face to face" 
with Christ is an inconsistent use of the illustration. If the mirror is 
metaphorical for something, then the "face to face" experience is also 
metaphorical. If the mirror represents imperfect knowledge, then the 
face to face encounter is metaphorical for the complete state of knowl- 
edge, and is not a literal statement of our future face to face encounter 
with Christ. 

The second illustration of verse 12 may be considered to reflect 
Paul's incomplete understanding of God's truth as compared with the 
level of knowledge God has of him. Paul in his finite knowledge knows 
God and His ways only incompletely, but God in His omniscience knows 
Paul and his ways completely. As a hyperbole this would be a fitting 
illustration of the contrast between the limitations inherent in a message 
of one with the gift of prophecy or knowledge and the complete New 

Another possible interpretation is that Paul is contrasting the 
subjective knowledge that a person has of himself with the more objective 
knowledge that others have of him. The prophet's narrow insight given 
to him for a local need gives way to the more universal message recorded 
in canonical scripture. In connection with this it is noteworthy that 
Paul does not speak specifically of knowing as God knows him, but 
merely, "as I am known," the agent left unexpressed. 

An objection to tongues being a gift "in part" and hence to be 
done away is seen by some commentators. This objection is that Paul 
does not mention tongues specifically as being "in part" in verse 9, 
while he does mention the other two gifts in this connection. 

Several answers may be set forth: 

(a) This omission in verse 9 can be because of the nature of 


the gift of tongues in contrast to the other two mentioned. Tongues 
are not so obviously a revelation -in -part as are the other two. Yet 
tongues were a form of revelation of God. (1) In Acts 2, the pilgrims 
heard concerning "the wonderful works of God" in their own languages. 
These truths were Spirit prompted, and are thus a form of revelation. 
(2) In I Corinthians 14:16 and 17 the speaking in tongues is spoken of 
as the "giving of thanks," statements made about God and His works 
which the Spirit prompts, which are spoken in an appreciative manner. 

(b) He does refer to tongues in his personal illustration of verse 
11: "When I was a child I spake as a child. " Just as the thinking and 
reasoning correspond to the gifts of knowledge and prophecy, this cor- 
responds to the relative inferiority of tongues as a revelation of the 
praiseworthiness of God, as compared with the yet -to -be -completed 
perfect revelation. 


The condition for the cessation of the spiritual gifts of knowledge 
and prophecy and tongues is the completion of the New Testament canon. 


Church history supplies the necessary information for the deter- 
mination of when the New Testament canon was completed. A corre - 
sponding question is to determine if the manifestation of tongues actually 
ceased at that time. There is no attempt at this point to be rigorous, 
but only to state the generally accepted conclusions in this regard. 

When Was the Canon of the New Testament Completed? 

It is generally accepted in conservative circles that the last 
canonical book of the New Testament to be written, the Apocalypse, 
was probably written in the last decade of the first century. Thus the 
New Testament was complete about the turn of the century. Of course, 
circulation and collection of the books took some time after this, but 
it seems reasonable in the light of Paul's statement that after this no 
newly converted believers would receive these unnecessary gifts, and 
the older believers who had them would gradually be passing off the 
scene in the early part of the second century at the latest. 

When Did the Gift of Tongues Cease Historically? 

The consensus of church historians is that the gift of tongues 
ceased before the end of the first century. George W. Dollar cites 
a study by Dr. George B. Cutten of Colgate University of the historical 


instances of speaking with tongues. His conclusion was that in the church 
of the Fathers, from the beginning of the second century on, "there 
was not one well-attested instance of any person who exercised speaking 
in tongues or even pretended to exercise it. "8 Indeed, the second 
century fathers, as Irenaeus and Justin Martyr, had only "heard" of 
some who had done it. Church history thus demonstrates that about 
the time that the New Testament canon was completed, tongues "faded 
away. " 


The present day phenomenon of Christians claiming to speak in 
tongues has some other explanation than that it is a continuation of the 
New Testament practice of the gift. Such a gift is no longer necessary 
in that we have the complete New Testament, and the expression of our 
praise to God is in light of all He has revealed within its pages concerning 
Himself. There is not needed any dramatic use of strange languages 
as the prophecy of Isaiah was fulfilled in the day of the early church. 
Israel as a nation met destruction in A. D. 70, and has been cut out of 
the tree of God's blessing so that the wild olive branches might be grafted 
in (Rom. II). 9 

Twentieth century Christians are not "missing something" as long 
as they saturate themselves with the entire Bible, and in so doing "let 
the Word of Christ dwell in [them] richly, in all wisdom, teaching and 
admonishing one another in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, 
singing with grace in their hearts to the Lord." 


1. Stanley D. Toussaint, "First Corinthians Thirteen and the Tongues 
Question, " Bibliotheca Sacra, 120:480, October-December 1963, 
p. 314. 

2. Warren E. Tamkin, That Which is Perfect: I Corinthians 13:10, 
unpublished critical monograph, Grace Theological Seminary, 
1949. p. 27 ff. 

3. Leon Morris, Commentary on I Corinthians, p. 186. 

4. Robertson and Plumer, I Corinthians , p. 197. 

5. Heinrich A. W. Meyer, Commentary on I and II Corinthians , 
p. 305. 


6. No objection can be drawn because the original for "Word" is 
logos, a masculine noun. Rhema is often used of the Scriptures 
and is neuter. 

7. Toussaint, p. 312. 

8. George W. Dollar, "Church History and the Tongues Movement, " 
Bibliotheca Sacra, 120:480, October-December 1963, pp. 316-321. 

9. See Zane C. Hodges, "The Purpose of Tongues," Bibliotheca 
Sacra, 120:479, July-September 1963, pp. 226-233. 


Missionary, Central African Republic 

During this writer's university days, many hours were spent in 
discussion with aspiring young scientists already fully indoctrinated with 
the theory of evolution. Since that time, the creation account of Genesis 
has been one of his particular fields of interest. At this present time, 
the literal interpretation of the Creation account is under what seems to 
be the most intensive attack since the Renaissance, both by science 
and by liberal theological scholarship. There seems to be hope that 
simply through the sheer weight of intellectual prestige, the literal inter- 
pretation of Genesis one and two may be swept aside once and for all. 
To that end, those all too few scholars who take an effective positive 
stance for the literal account are subjected to constant attack by scornful 
and derisive rhetoric. 

The most disturbing aspect about the present controversy is not 
the intensity of the attacks of agnostic science and liberal theology, but 
rather the increasing tendency of those who call themselves evangelical 
and orthodox to join the ranks of the enemy. One evangelical lays the 
blame for the repudiation of the Scriptures by science at the feet of "a 
narrow evangelical Biblicism, and the Plymouth Brethren theology. "1 
Again, he strikes out at the defenders of a literal Bible interpretation 
by saying in reference to them, "there is no legitimate place for small 
minds, petty souls, and studied ignorance. " 2 This type of attack is to 
be expected from unbelief, but is it really warranted from a Christian 
brother? Certainly, we may have disagreements about interpretations 
of Scripture, but should we employ name calling and derision to help 
put across our viewpoint? 

What should be the attitude of a believer in a literal Bible inter- 
pretation toward "brethren" who are diverging from such an interpretation 
in the areas mentioned in this paper? Obviously, there are differing 
interpretations of the Genesis creation account among those who believe 
in a literal interpretation. Although the writer holds to the interpretation 
of a literal six day creation, and with no great time interval between 
the first two verses, yet he is willing to respect those who hold solidly 



to verbally inspired inerrant Word and nevertheless take another inter- 
pretation within the literal framework. The question arises over the 
attitude towards those within the orthodox camp who advocate a non- 
literal interpretation. 

Many references are made in this paper to "science. " In most 
places, these references are to that aspect of science which formulates 
theories about origins, about how the universe developed. There is no 
intention to denounce science in its over -all aspect. Science and the 
theories it has derived from scientific observation and methods have 
contributed more than we can say toward the betterment of mankind's 
health and welfare. One might quickly add that science has flourished 
most in societies built on faith in a literal, inspired Bible. 

It has been well said that Genesis 1-11 is the seedplot for the 
whole Bible. The basis for every great Bible doctrine is found therein. 
Take away the literal interpretation of this great section of Scriptures 
and the great plan of salvation is lost. If there is no fall, there is no 
need for salvation through the precious blood of Christ. The source 
of the attacks on the literal interpretation of these chapters is not hard 
to find --it all goes back to the master deceiver himself. Certainly 
our response to even good Bible loving scholars who would give support 
to the non-literal interpretation should be that of our Lord to Peter when 
he became Satan's tool, "Get thee behind me Satan. " 


The Three -Story Universe Theory 

One of the products of higher criticism is the assertion that the 
early Biblical account set forth the common world view of the time that 
the universe is tri-partite. In an article printed in the Journal of the 
American Scientific Affiliation, an evangelical publication, Paul H. Seely 
sets forth this theory in a rather complete and emphatic manner: 

The three-storied universe is a cosmology wherein 
the universe is conceived as consisting of three stories. 
The ceiling of Sheol, the bottom story, is the surface 
of the earth. The surface of the earth, in turn, is 
the floor of the top story, heaven. ^ 

Msgr. Conway, a Roman Catholic scholar, puts it this way: 

The author's . . . world was a large plate floating 
on a vast expanse of waters; it was covered by an 
inverted bowl, blue and beautiful, in which the sun, 


moon, and stars were stuck; this bowl kept the waters 
above it from swamping the earth, but it had floodgates 
which could be opened to let the rain come down. 

Then one writer compares this supposed Hebrew cosmology with that of 
the Babylonians. "The world of the Hebrews was a small affair of three 
stories . . . The Babylonians had a larger view of the world and a 
longer historical perspective. "5 

Let us consider this amazing assertion by Jordan that the world 
of the Hebrews was small and that the Babylonians had a larger cos- 
mological view. One wonders what Bible and what Babylonian sources 
this conclusion is drawn from. The Lord took Abram out into the night 
and said to him, "Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou 
be able to number them ..." (Genesis 15:5). And the Psalmist was 
so enthralled with the greatness and vastness of God's universe that he 
exclaimed in awe, "The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firma- 
ment sheweth his handywork" (Psa. 13:1). His view of the universe was 
so great that it was a befitting tribute even for the omnipotent and 
omniscient God. Then one turns to a perusal of the Babylonian legends. 
The very anthropomorphic and whimsical portrayal of its gods effectively 
serves to limit the grandeur of any world picture it contains. 

In claiming that the Scriptures portray a three story universe, 
much is made of the conception of the "firmament. " The critics assert 
that the Biblical picture of the firmament is that of a solid inverted 
bowl. One writer comments about it thusly: "It goes back to the 
Vulgate firmamentum "something made solid" which is based in turn on 
the LXX rendering of Hebrew raqia "beaten out, stamped" (as of metal), 
suggesting a thin sheet stretched out to form the vault of the sky. "" 

Let us note the interpretation of Delitzsch who was no mean 
scholar of the Hebrew. 

There followed upon a second fiat of the creator, the 
division of the chaotic mass of waters through the 
formation of the firmament which was placed as a 
wall of separation in the midst of the waters . . . 
ragi from raga to stretch, spread out, then beat or 
tread out, means expansum, the spreading out of the 
air, which surrounds the earth as an atmosphere. 
According to the optical appearance, it is described 
as a carpet spread out above the earth (Ps. civ. 2), 
a curtain (Isa. xl. 22), a transparent work of sapphire 
(Ex. xxiv. 10), or a molten looking-glass (Job xxxvii. 
18); but there is nothing in their poetical similies to 
warrant the idea that the heavens were regarded as a 
solid mass. ? 


As Livingston puts it: "The emphasis in the Hebrew word raqia is not 
on the material itself but on the act of spreading out or the condition of 
being expanded. The word 'expanse' (A. S. V. margin) is more appro- 
priate. " 8 

Even Mr. Seely grudgingly admits that "this historical etymology 
of ' raqia' and 'raqa' does not absolutely prove that ' raqia' in Genesis 1 
is solid ..." Of course, he then adds, "but it does give initial pre- 
sumption to the idea that ' raqia ' is solid. "9 Any fair rules of inter- 
pretation demand that a document be taken at its face value and that it 
not be charged with error unless it is proved that this is the case. 
There is no proof of guilt here. Unfortunately, too many approach the 
Bible with the assumption that it is guilty until proved innocent. 

We note that the windows or floodgates of Genesis 7:11 are made 
out to be literal openings in the solid dome through which God sends 
forth the rain. There is absolutely no reason why this can not be taken 
as a figure of speech. The manner in which rain comes upon the earth 
is plainly and correctly set forth in Job 36:27 and 28. Dr. John Whitcomb 
points out that Genesis 7:11 does not refer to an ordinary rain but a once 
for-all supernatural act. "It is obvious that the opening of the 'windows 
of heaven' in order to allow 'the waters' which were above the firmament' 
to fall upon the earth, and the breaking up of 'all the fountains of the 
great deep' were supernatural acts of God. "10 

There surely is no need to demonstrate here that the universe 
actually does contain three "stories," since the location of heaven is 
spoken of as "up" and Hades as "down. " No one has ever proven that 
this is not literally true, nor can they. If one is to leave the face of 
this earth bodily, he can only do so by going "up" or "down. " We await 
the day that we will be caught "up" to meet our Lord in the air. This 
is not contradictory with an understanding of the expanse of the universe 
in all directions. And no one has delved beneath the crust of the earth 
far enough to eliminate it as a possible location of Hades. No one has 
ventured far enough in that direction to make a declaration similar to 
the one made by the Russian cosmonaut when he got one -hundred miles 
up into the atmosphere and said, "There is no God, for I didn't see 
Him. " 

The Dual Revelation Theory 

This theory holds that God has provided a dual revelation of 
Himself in the Scriptures and in nature. There is no conflict between 
these two revelations as long as they are used only for enlightenment 
on subjects which are in their proper sphere. The Bible is acknowledged 
to be the authority on spiritual and moral matters. But, whenever the 
Bible speaks on matters of the natural world, one will not expect to 


find accuracy in the Scriptures, for they will merely reflect the ancient 
world view. To get the truth concerning creation of the universe, the 
beginning of life, and other natural facts, one must turn to the appro- 
priate science. 

Here is a statement on the matter by Gerald Holton in the book 
Science Ponders Religion : 

God has revealed himself in different ways to the scientist 
and to the theologian . . . The Scriptures are not 
rejected, but understood as guides to the moral life, 
set in the language and imagery of antiquity. It is 
perhaps a triumph both of liberal philosophy and of 
good common sense that in our time so many scientists 
have come to accept this position even without being 
aware that they have done so. " 

Some of the graver implications of this theory are made clear 
in this excerpt from the pen of an "evangelical" geologist, Dr. J. R. 
Van DeFliert: 

Our ideas and conceptions concerning the Bible may 
indeed appear to be vulnerable to the results of scien- 
tific development. This state of affairs seems to be 
difficult to accept, particularly for many evangelical 
Christians. It cannot be denied, however, that there 
is "revelation" (be it of a different kind than that 
of the Bible) in the development of this created world, 
also in the results of human scientific and technical 
advances during the last centuries. It cannot be denied 
and should not be denied that, as a result of this dev- 
elopment, our ( scientific ) world picture (Weltbild) has 
obtained huge dimensions, both in time and space and 
has become entirely different from that of the authors 
of the Bible . But, this is the world God has wanted us 
to live in, we and our children. 


It is not difficult to determine which "revelation" gains the supre- 
macy in this Dual Revelation Theory. Science conquers all. Anything 
in the Bible that would seem to disagree with scientific theories is 
relegated to the limbo as being only a vestige of the world view of 
antiquity. Cowperthwaite has well put it when he says, "This would 
mean that God has revealed Himself to man in a book written in terms 
of discredited science and outmoded cultural patterns. "^ Is this the 
sure foundation upon which we stand and proclaim the message, "Thus 
saith the Lord"? 


A fine refutation of this theory is provided by Dr. John C. 
Whitcomb in a monograph entitled The Origin of the Solar System . "" 


The Inexorable Demands of 
Present Day Science 

The espousal of non-literal theories of creation can not all be 
laid at the doorstep of Science as her full responsibility. There have 
always been those theologians who are ready to negate the power of the 
Word in their own right. However, the pressures built up by the 
scientific theories of origins and evolution have been a major factor in 
the proliferation of these theories among Bible scholars of today. 

James H. Jauncey wrote a book entitled Science Returns to God , 
and in it he makes this observation: "When I was in school, the general 
outlook of scientific people was frankly hostile to religion. . . . Now the 
situation is entirely different. The atheist or the hostile agnostic, even 
in scientific circles, is becoming a rare bird indeed. Yet when one 

reads the scientific journals of today, where is the mention of God and 
the recognition of His existence and influence in the affairs of science? 
It is almost non-existent. The one reason why there is less open hos- 
tility to religion on the part of Science is that for all practical purposes 
Science has carried the day. There is so little vital, literal, living 
Christian doctrine being proclaimed today that it is scarcely worth the 
effort of Science to oppose it. Scientific theories have prevailed. 

Let there be no doubt. There has not been any rapproachment 
of Science to fundamental vital Christianity. Indeed, there are some 
scientists who are also Christians in its real sense. But their voice is 
seldom heard. The impression one gets today is that Science 
is waiting with great expectation for that great breakthrough -- the 
announcement that life has been synthesized in the test tube. Why this 
expectancy? Will there then not come the outcry that the problem of 
origins has been solved? "Now, we have proved there is no need for 
God even as originator or first cause. Now we can explain all the 
secrets of life and the universe -- and there is no God!" 

Science has not waited for a breakthrough in synthesis of life to 
shove God out the door or to relegate Him to the back seat. Here is 
a typical statement, "The best that scientific thought can do with the 
scriptural account of the origin of life on this planet is to consider it 
an allegorical picture of an evolutionary process that originated in the 
darkness of geological time. "1" Science demands that it be heard and 


conformed to by religious circles. And it controls its own colleagues 
with a heavy hand. Marsh writes of his experiences while sharing in 
the scholastic life of three different universities. 

I repeatedly observed the dissatisfaction in the minds 
of students over the existing "proof" for evolution. 
The thing which repeatedly won them over to acceptance 
of the theory was sheer weight of authority on the part 
of scientists through a not always highly refined method 
of browbeating .... 

In more than one public institution of higher learning 
in this country the candidates for a higher degree in 
science must at least claim to hold to the evolution 
theory of origins .... 

One can not help joining him in his conclusion that "the lack of this 
truly scientific attitude among the scientific body in general is a deplor- 
able situation . . 


Science, judged by the voices that make themselves heard, is 
completely intolerant of any literal interpretation of the Scriptures or 
the God which is revealed therein. Wilder Smith records some of the 
statements of these more vociferous leaders. 

Sir Julian Huxley, Dr. Harlow Shapley, Dr. George 
Gaylord Simpson, and their colleagues are unanimous 
in maintaining that the concept of God has been elbowed 
out of scientific reckoning. . . . Huxley (London) main- 
tains for example that "Gods are peripheral phenomena 
produced by Evolution. " ( The Observer , July 17, 1960, 
p. 17). . . Science (April 1, 1960) reported that in a 
lecture before the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science on "The World into Which Darwin Led 
Us, " Simpson (Harvard) stated that the modern devel- 
opment in the biological sciences had made the religious 
superstitions (Christianity was obviously meant) so 
rampant in North America intellectually untenable. 
Everything we see had come about spontaneously, 
produced by the laws of the universe we know about. 
Shapley (Harvard) is equally dogmatic on these matters. 
"There is no need for explaining the origins of life in 
terms of miraculous or the supernatural. Life occurs' 
automatically wherever the conditions are right. It 
will not only emerge but persist and evolve. " (Science 
News Letter, July 3, 1965, p. 10) . . . . 19 


Inexorably, the voice of Science demands that religion conform 
to its theories and make Science the infallible guide rather than the 
Bible. Here is how one man sums up the case: 

The great body of theologians who have so long resisted 
the conclusions of the men of science have claimed . . . 
"The Bible is true." And they are right --though in 
a sense nobler than they have dreamed . . . each of 
the great sacred books of the world is precious, and 
all, in the highest sense, are true. Not one of them, 
indeed, conforms to the measure of what mankind has 
now reached in historical and scientific truth. . . . 

The Capitulation of Theologians 
and Christian Scientists 

With the great strides of learning in this past century, Science 
has been able to completely reverse the situation in its relationship with 
the Christian religion. In the Middle Ages scientists had to conform 
to whatever the Bible scholars of the day felt that the Scriptures taught 
about Science. Today, it seems as though Christian theologians must 
conform to whatever the scientists of today feel that Science teaches 
about the Bible. 

Many of the liberal element in the Christian camp, currying 
favor and standing from Science, take the vanguard in condemning other 
Christian scholars who still choose to take a literal view of creation. 
Not wanting to. be considered "unlearned," "unscientific," "non-intellec- 
tual, " they turn to the literal, Bible -believing scholar, heaping him with 
scorn for not keeping pace with Science. Professor Van DeFliert, a 
geologist and paleontologist, and a member of a Christian Reformed 
Church in the Netherlands, has this to say: 

For the fundamentalist, therefore, the reliability of 
the Bible as the Word of God is related to scientific 
reliability. For him this is particularly true with 
respect to the first eleven chapters of Genesis . . . 
But these "scientific" battles for an infallible Word of 
God have been lost right from the start. In constant 
retreat, the theologians have had to surrender every 
position they had once taken in this struggle. That's 
what the history of warfare between science and theol- 
ogy should have made conclusively clear. 

Of course this attitude among liberals is nothing new. The 
alarming thing is that there has developed a recent trend among supposedly 


evangelical Bible scholars to adopt non- literal interpretations of the 
first chapters of Genesis. With the growing feeling in evangelical circles 
that the inexorable demands of science must be accommodated, every 
attempt has been made to find a literal interpretation of the creation 
which would be rated "scientific" by the intellectual circles. But every 
attempt has failed. Neither the Gap Theory nor the Day Age Theory 
could afford the necessary concessions required to satisfy science. 
Every concession has been followed by a demand for two more. Having 
chosen the course of accommodation to science, they have found science 
to be a hard taskmaster. Having ventured into a courtship with the 
scientism of today, they found that it brought them into the outer edges 
of a whirlpool that has drawn them steadily toward the vortex of com- 
plete capitulation. 

Here is one case in point. Some, such as William F. Albright, 
felt that by pushing the date for the creation of men back 150,000 to 
200,000 years they would satisfy the scholar's demands. And they pro- 
fessed that this could be done by enlarging the "gaps" in the genealogies 
of Genesis. Now, they find that science has pushed back the date of 

man's existence more than a million years! Zwemer has quoted this 
significant statement by Leaky, the noted paleontologist, from his book, 
Adam's Ancestors: 

Perhaps some readers of this book, when they realize 
that prehistory has now traced back man of our own 
type to the beginning of Pleistocene, and has shown 
that he was contemporary with various other more 
primitive types of man and not evolved from them, 
will begin to think that there is evidence which is con- 
trary to the theory of evolution. It has been suggested 
to me that . . . this may be taken to indicate that this 
type of man has his origin in a special creative act, 
and is not the result of any normal evolutionary process. 
This is certainly not the interpretation which I would 
put upon the available evidence. I should say rather 
that we have learned that evolution has been very much 
slower than we have sometimes been led to believe. . . 
There can be no doubt now that man has been in 
existence upon the earth much longer than the million 
years assigned to the Pleistocene period. 

Those Biblical scholars who went out on a limb to say that 100,000 
years could be accommodated in a literal interpretation of Genesis now 
find the limb neatly sawed off behind them. Whitcomb points out that 
having gone this far, Bus well is now willing to accommodate the geneal- 
ogies of Genesis 5 and 11 to allow a date of 1,750,000 years for the 


antiquity of man. We can only agree with Whitcomb's conclusion: 
"Such men may see no problem in allowing 100,000 years between each 
of the twenty patriarchs of Genesis 5 and 11, but for most Bible -believing 
Christians this is an utter absurdity. Going back to the quotation 

from Leaky, notice the familiar ploy so often used to defend evolution 
-- just push events a few million years back in time. That will silence 
all objections. And time after time, well-intentioned Bible scholars 
have found how unstable and shifting the ground becomes when they em- 
bark on a course of accommodation to scientific theories. 

Now the ultimate in accommodation is being reached by some who 
at least started out as orthodox men. They have reached the point of 
abandoning any attempt at a literal interpretation of Genesis creation 
"out of respect" for the findings of science. Dr. Carnell had these 
words to say: 

When orthodoxy takes inventory of its knowledge, it 
admits that it does not know how God formed man from 
the dust of the ground. The Genesis account implies 
an act of immediate creation, but the same account 
implies that God made the world in six literal days; and 
since orthodoxy has given up the literal -day theory out 
of respect for geology, it would certainly forfeit no 
principle if it gave up the immediate creation theory 
out of respect for paleontology. ^5 

What a revealing statement this is about the path of accommodation 
to science. Out of respect for paleontology, Carnell is willing to give 
up what he admits is the literal interpretation of the creation of man -- 
an immediate creation from the dust of the ground. And he has already 
given up the literal-day theory out of respect for geology . The obvious 
question to ask of the Carnells of our day is which literal Bible teach- 
ing will they give up next? There is a great deal of respect for Science 
here. But how much respect for God's Word? Certainly this goes down 
in direct proportion to the elevation of Science at the expense of the 
literality of the Bible. We join with Williams in this pointed question 
to men such as Carnell: "One cannot help wondering what the 
final outcome of such a surrender may be . . . Will such men, or their 
children, find it necessary to surrender the doctrine of the virgin birth 
and the bodily resurrection of Christ out of respect for biology and 
physics?" 26 

Dr. Robert D. Culver, in what is overall a very restrained and 
sympathetic evaluation of Bernard Ramm's book, The Christian View of 
Science and Scripture , nevertheless makes this point about his chosen 
path of accommodation: 


He (Ramm) aims to believe in an inerrant book and 
also to accept the results of contemporary scientific 
inquiry. Where there is apparent disagreement he feels 
that either the results of science are faulty as yet, or 
else the interpretations of Scripture are wrong. Now, 
whether he realizes it or not, Ramm has made most 
of the adjustments from the side of reinterpreting 
Scripture .... 

Another tragic statement showing how far the path of accommoda- 
tion leads toward capitulation was made by a consulting editor of the 
Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation in considering what choice 
he would make in case of conflict between Bible exegesis and scientific 
conclusions: "In that situation, I personally would temporarily accept 
the scientific conclusion rather than the exegetical one so long as doing 
so does not sacrifice the few basic spiritual concepts taught by the 
whole Bible. ' How illuminating this statement is! Once very far 

along the road of accommodation, all one has left are "a few basic spir- 
itual concepts taught by the whole Bible. " 

Perhaps the saddest example of the downward path of accommoda- 
tion is found in the record of the spiritual disintegration of the American 
Scientific Affiliation. This organization was founded in the 1940's with 
the express purpose of investigating and refuting the theory of evolution 
and other anti-biblical theories of science. Christian scientists were 
to enter in to studies in the various branches of science and to develop 
biblically sound alternatives to these false theories. Dr. Barnes stated 
the objective in this manner: "In actually combatting erroneous theories 
we will strive to construct a more perfect hypothesis which is con- 
sistent with the Scriptures . . . and which places a permissable and 
logical interpretation on experimental observation. " 

One writer gives the following summary of what happened to 
many of the young scientists of this group: 

Over twenty years ago a group of zoology majors at 
a Christian college agreed in all seriousness that as a 
part of his life's work each would take a certain phase 
of evolution, explore it carefully, and derive therefrom 
inherent data to refute the evolutionary concept .... 
As each made an honest and objective consideration of 
the data, he was struck with the validity and undeni- 
ability of datum after datum. As he strove to incor- 
porate each of these facts into his Biblico-scientific 
frame of reference. . . he began to question first the 
feasibility and then the desirability of an effort to refute 


the total evolutionary concept .... 


This conclusion has not been unanimous among the Affiliation 
members however. In 1963, Philip B. Marquart wrote a letter to the 
editor in this vein, 

Dr. John Howitt of Canada also wrote his timely dis - 
approval of the present evolutionary trend among us. 
He and I have agreed on this issue since 1946. Al- 
though the trend is toward theistic evolution, there are 
a few members . . . who oppose it . . . We remember 
the days when A.S. A. first organized. We were all 
against evolution then. Satan has thus worked fast to 
bring us to such a compromise .... 

As one reads the succeeding issues of the Journal of the A. S. A. , 
it is easy to discern the shift in tone and attitude of this organization. 
In its latest issues, articles which deny any literal interpretation of 
Genesis creation are in the preponderance, e.g., the aforementioned 
article by Paul Seely, "The Three Storied Universe. " When some readers 
wrote to the Journal in protest, the revised editorial policy was given 
as a reply. We quote: "It is not the function of the Journal to prop- 
agate a crusade for any particular interpretation of many questions in 
which science and Christian faith are mutually involved. "32 

How much more evidence is needed to show the dangers of accom- 
modation to today's scientific thought. Accommodation is a one way street 
leading to capitulation. May evangelical scholars think long and hard 
before embarking on its path. 



1. Bernard Ramm, The Christian View of Science and Scripture 
(Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1954), 
Preface (n. p. ). 

2. Ibid., p. 41. 

3. Paul H. Seely, "The Three Storied Universe, " Journal of the 
American Scientific Affiliation , XXI, No. 1 (1969), 18. 

4. J. D. Conway, "A Roman Catholic Statement on Evolution, " ibid. , 
XV, No. 2 (1963), 81. 

5. W.G. Jordan, "The Old Testament and Science" in The Abingdon 
Bible Commentary, ed. by Frederick Carl Eiselen, Edwin Lewis 
and David G. Downey (New York: Abingdon Press, 1929), p. 123. 

6. George Herbert Livingston, Genesis, Vol. I of Beacon Bible Com- 
mentary, ed. by A. F. Harper, Ralph Earle, E.M. Greathouse 
and W. T. Purkhiser (10 vols.; Kansas City, Missouri: Beacon 
Hill Press, 1969), p. 32. 

7. C F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, The Pentateuch, Vol. I, in the 
Biblical Commentary , trans, by James Martin (25 vols. ; Grand 
Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1951), p. 52. 

8. Livingston, Genesis , p. 32. 

9. Seely, "The Three Storied Universe," p. 19. 

10. John C. Whitcomb, Jr. and Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood 
(Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 
1961), P. 76. 

11. Gerald Holton, "Notes on the Religious Orientation of Scientists in 
Science Ponders Religion, ed. by Harlow Shapley (New York: 
Appleton- Century -Crofts, 1960), p. 64. 

J. R. Van DeFliert, "Fundamentalism and the Fundamentals of 
Geology," Journal of the A.S. A. , XII, No. 2 (1960), p. 80. 
Irving A. Cowperthwaite, "Some Implications of Evolution for 
A.S. A.," Journal of the A.S. A. , XII, No. 2 (1960), p. 13. 
John C. Whitcomb, Jr., The Origin of the Solar System Biblical 
Inerrancy and the Double Revelation Theory . (Phildaelphia: Pres- 
byterian and Reformed Publishing Co. , 1964), pp. 1-30. 
James H. Jauncy, Science Returns to God (Grand Rapids:Zondervan 
Publishing House, 1961), p. 17. 

Paul E. Sabine, "Religion and (or) Science, " in Science Ponders 
Religion, ed. by Shapley, p. 278. 

Frank Lewis Marsh, Evolution, Creation and Science (Washington, 
D. C. : Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1944), p. 10. 

A. E. Wilder Smith, "Darwinism and Contemporary Thought, " 
Christianity Today (May 26, 1967), pp. 3-6. 
White, Warfare of Science with Theology , pp. 22-23. 
Van DeFliert, "Fundamentalism and Geology, " p. 80. 
William F. Albright, "Return to Biblical Theology, " The Christian 
Century , No. 19, 1958, p. 1, 329. 


23. L. S. B. Leaky, Adams Ancestors, pp. 226-228, cited by Zwemer, 
Origin of Religion, p. 121. 

24. John C. Whitcomb, Jr., The Early Earth (Grand Rapids; Baker 
Book House, 1972), p. 110. 

25. Edward John Carnell, The Case for Orthodox Theology (Philadelphia: 
Westminster Press, 1959), p. 95. 

26. Arthur F. Williams, "The Genesis Account of Creation," Creation 
Research Society, II, No. 1 (1965), 7-13. 

27. Robert D. Culver, "An Evaluation of 'The Christian View of 
Science and Scripture, '" Journal of the A. S. A. , VII, No. 4 (1955). 

28. Roger J. Cuffey, "Bible -Science Symposium, " Journal of the A. S. A. , 
XXI, No. 4 (1969), 108-09. 

29. M. D. Barnes, "A Christian View of the Development of Science," 
Journal of the A. S. A. , I, No. 1 (1949), 10-11. 

30. J. Frank Cassell, "The Evolution of Evangelical Thinking on 
Evolution, " Journal of the A. S. A. , XI, No. 4 (1959), pp. 26-27. 

31. Philip B. Marquart, (Letter to the editor), Journal of the A. S. A. , 
XV, No. 3 (1963), 100. 

32. (Editor's Note), Journal of the A. S. A. , XXI, No. 3 (1969), 93. 


TONGUES OF MEW ANV ANGELS. By William J. Samarin. Macmillan Co. , 
New York, 1972. 277 pp., $7.95, cloth. 

Here is a book written by a former Brethren missionary on the 
linguistic, sociological, and psychological aspects of glossolalia. Dr. 
Samarin is now Professor of Anthropology and Linguistics at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto and is well qualified to write in these fields. His 
is undoubtedly the most thorough study, and the most accurate descrip- 
tion, from the linguistic aspect, of tongues to this date. This is not 
a Biblical study, nor a study of Pentecostalism, but a study of glossolalia. 

Samarin demonstrates clearly that tongues are not a miraculous 
phenomenon. "No special power needs to take over a person's vocal 
organs; all of us are equipped with everything we need to produce 
glossolalia" (p. 211). There are no word meanings and no semantic 
system, he asserts (p. 211), though the sounds are not entirely random 
(p. 127). There is apparently some selection of sounds, or of the type 
of sounds, on a phonological rather than lexical basis. This selection 
maybe influenced by the nature of the audience or by the varying purposes 
of the speech, such as whether the speaker considers himself to be 
praying or delivering a message. 

Samarin writes as a scientist and evinces a scholarly reserve 
in several points. He is very cautious in identifying non-Christian 
utterances as glossolalia. He believes that glossolalia is "rarely found 
in societies that have had no contact with Christianity" (p. 222), yet 
he does point to instances of tongues among non-Christians. He correctly 
observes that "contrary to common belief, it has never been scientifically 
demonstrated that zenoglossia (tongues speaking in foreign language) 
occurs among Pentecostals : people just do not talk languages they are 
unfamiliar with" (p. 227). He admits that "some alleged cases of 
zenoglossia might be explained by cryptomnesia, " or "hidden memory" 
(p. 115). 

Probably Samarin's major emphasis is that "glossolalia is not 
simply a product of dissociative states, like trance" (p. 226). It is 
"not aberrant behavior, only anomalous" (p. 228). It is "normal, not 
supernatural as the Pentecostal believes, " and "normal, not abnormal 



as the man-in-the-street believes" (p. 229). 

The reviewer would raise several questions regarding very minor 
aspects of this work. First, he would question the aptness of the title. 
It is not likely that Paul was labeling glossolalia when he said, "Though 
I speak with the tongues of men and angels. " He was saying, in effect, 
"Even if I should so speak (even in angel -language, which I do not) , 
even if I should give my body to be burned (which I have not), even if 
I should know all mysteries . ..." All these are merely hypothetical. 
Even if he should do these things, he said, they would be meaningless 
without love. 

Secondly, it is doubtful that Paul, in I Corinthians 14:14-15, is 
saying that he would employ both glossolalia and natural language in 
his worship (p. 181). More likely, he is saying that in his use of 
natural language (his use of the mind) he would also employ the spirit, 
that is, his emotions. 

Thirdly, Samarin, citing I Corinthians 12:10 and 14:2, grants 
that the Pentecostal distinction between tongues as a sign and as a gift 
"appears necessary for the interpretation of the relevant Biblical texts" 
(p. 151). But the statement, "no man understands ! ' (I Cor. 14:2) does 
not contradict the fact that God sometimes gave the gift of interpretation 
(I Cor. 12:10), and does not make it necessary to distinguish tongues as 
a sign from tongues as a gift. Even the interpreter never "understood" 
lexically. He was not a translator but an explainer. (Besides, it is 
the reviewer's understanding that charismatists usually view all the 
statements about tongues in I Corinthians as references to the gift; 
whereas the sign is supposedly described in Acts.) 

A more important question concerns Samarin's "sympathetic" 
(p. xiy) conclusion. Though there is nothing supernatural about it, 
"we should recognize the legitimacy and value of glossolalia, " he says. 
These values are primarily that it symbolizes "the mystery of religion, " 
and "marks the discontinuity between the sacred and the profane" (pp . 
232-33). To the reviewer, this is similar to saying that we should 
approve of false views of the eucharist (transubstantiation, for example) 
because they symbolize the mystery of religion, and of snake -handling 
because to its practitioners it marks the discontinuity between the sacred 
and the profane. We may be sympathetic towards tongues speakers 
without approving their misinterpretations and misuse of this experience, 
just as we may be sympathetic towards Roman Catholics without approv- 
ing their false views of the eucharist. We agree with Samarin's obvious 
feeling that God can and has done a genuine work in some tongues 
speakers, but we believe this to be in spite of their misunderstandings 
about tongues. But the false doctrines~of a cultist, for example, cannot 
be commended, even though he may be changed by his convictions and 
conduct himself admirably. 


Dr. Samarin's first-hand contact with glossolalia, and the responses 
to his survey questions, provide numerous first-person quotations. 
Especially those who believe that tongues are always miraculous, or 
always real languages, or always demonic, should read this book. Where 
one is unwilling to evaluate fairly other views and fresh interpretations, 
learning is impossible. In fact, any pastor, or Bible student (or anyone 
interested in tongues), who desires to acquaint himself fully with contem- 
porary glossolalia, owes it to himself to read this book. 

Charles R. Smith 
Grace Theological Seminary 

HEROV ANTIPAS. By Harold W. Hoehner. The University Press, 

Cambridge, 1972. 437 pp. $22.00. 

This highly scholarly work by a member of the faculty at Dallas 
Theological Seminary was originally the author's doctoral dissertation at 
the University of Cambridge. It is the most thorough study available 
of Herod Antipas, the governmental head of Galilee and Perea during 
the days of Jesus' ministry, the one to whom our Lord referred as 
"that fox. " As an indication of the breadth of the research, the bibli- 
ography alone covers 46 pages. 

The volume consists of three sections: Part 1: Antipas' Back- 
ground; Part 2: Antipas' Realm; Part 3: Antipas' Reign. In addition, 
eleven appendices discuss such matters as the wills of Herod, the 
population, possible sources of the story of John's death, commencement 
of John's Ministry, the Herodians, and the meaning of "fox. " Primary 
sources have been thoroughly examined, and variations between Josephus 
and the Gospels are evaluated in much detail. Little-known facts are 
unearthed, such as the probability of Herod the Great's title being used 
in the sense of "eldest" in comparison to his sons, rather than meaning 
"illustrious" (page 6), and that Joanna or Manaen may have been the 
source for the account of the beheading of John the Baptist (pages 120-121). 

This book is not for the casual reader, but any student pursuing 
serious study of New Testament backgrounds will find this volume a 
treasure house of material. It will be a standard reference work for 
many years. 

Homer A. Kent, Jr. 

Grace Theological Seminary 

EPHESIANS. By Homer A. Kent, Jr. Moody Press, Chicago, 1971. 

128 pp. $.95. 


This book is an interesting and informative contribution to the 
works on Ephesians. It is a verse by verse commentary with attention 
on the meaning of the text. Difficult problems are tackled and reason- 
able solutions rendered. The author is not one to avoid problems even 
if only suggested answers can be given. 

Dr. Kent divides his work into twelve sections from the two 
basic parts of the doctrines and duties of the church. In keeping with 
the purpose of the Everyman's Bible Commentary series, he employs 
no Greek words. However, his translation and the true meaning of the 
Greek text are very evident. Footnotes and quotes are few. His expo- 
sition is commended for clarity and conciseness. 

There is no easy explanation of chapter one in Ephesians, but 
Dr. Kent sheds helpful light on the material. A sermon could be 
preached from the author's outline on "captivity captive" (pp. 69,70 on 
Eph. 4:8). The portion on the Church, marriage and authority (pp. 99- 
106) is excellent. 

This book could well be the most profitable purchase the reader 
makes this year. Dr. Kent, Jr. , is dean and professor of New Testa- 
ment and Greek at Grace Theological Seminary. 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesteron, Indiana 


Boyer. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 153 pp. $3.95, cloth 
$2.95, paper. 

This recent study in I Corinthians from the pen of the professor 
of Greek and New Testament at Grace Theological Seminary, presents 
a readable and thought -provoking interpretation of this letter. The book 
is well-outlined, the outline being based on the suggestions found in the 
letter itself. The interpretation is clear and concise, well suited for 
use by laymen in Sunday School or Bible study groups. The volume is 
not a substitute for the Biblical text, but intended as a tool in the study 
of the text. 

The brief but rich introduction provided the needed historical 
background for the proper interpretation of the letter. Three maps, a 
chronological chart of Paul's ministry, as well as seven pictures relating 
to the site of ancient Corinth, add to the value of the volume. Technical 
matters or references to the Greek are relegated to footnotes. Each 
chapter concludes with "Questions for Discussion" intended to stimulate 


further serious study. The study of the epistle itself is presented in 
thirteen sections. 

Dr. Boyer holds that the "veil" of chapter 11, whose "closest 
modern counterpart would be the general term, 'hat'" (p. 101), relates 
to the public worship services and that there Christian women today 
should wear it as the sign of the woman's subordination to the headship 
of the man (pp. 102f). He holds that the Biblical gift of tongues ceased 
with the completion of the New Testament canon (pp. 125-126), and feels 
that "the vast majority of modern tongues is a work of the flesh, a 
highly emotional, psychologically- induced frenzy in childish, immature 
Christians" (p. 136). Dr. Boyer's views are clearly and well presented 
even though the reader may not always agree with his views. 

This would be a worthy addition to any pastor's, family, or 
church library. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 


Christian Light Publications, Harrisonburg, Va. , 1971. 162 pp. $4.95, 
cloth, $2.95, paper. 

This is a stimulating devotional interpretation of I Corinthians 
by a conservative scholar who accepts the contents of this letter as 
binding revelation for our times. The commentary is based on the King 
James version, but the author is conversant with other versions and 
occasionally makes reference to the meaning of the original Greek. The 
volume offers a running commentary on the text of the epistle, generally 
consisting of an interpretative paraphrase of the text. The Biblical text 
is always identified by verse numbers in the margin, with cross refer- 
ences placed in parentheses. Several summaries, such as "Guiding 
Principles of Christian Conduct " (pp. 62 - 63) and "Universals of 
I Corinthians" (pp. 75-76), add to the value of the volume. An appendix 
on "Tongues" (pp. 147-153) contains some valuable observations, but does 
not specifically identify the nature of the Corinthian tongues. An unusual 
feature is the topical index of subjects touched upon. 

On controversial points the different views are generally listed 
but the author often does not indicate his own position. On chapter 15 
the author does not commit himself to any specific eschatological view 
but does hold that the "Kingdom" has political dimensions that "at a 
given point in history, Christ will intervene and all things will be put 
under His feet and be 'subdued'" (p. 132). Concerning "baptism for the 


dead" (15:29) Shetler rightly insists that the meaning cannot be that mem- 
bers were baptized for the salvation of unsaved people who have died, 
and then lists three possible meanings without indicating a preference. 
He devotes 24 pages to 11:1-16. After citing five basic views concerning 
the paragraph, the author makes a strong case for accepting it as a 
universal teaching which is binding upon believers today. He holds that 
the wearing of "the little prayer caps" by sisters is a "noble attempt 
to express an historical biblical tradition" (p. 96) but is not a full 
compliance with the teaching. He appropriately warns against "a spirit 
of pride or arrogance" (p. 95) on the part of those sisters wearing the 
prayer cap toward those whose personal judgment does not lead them to 
adopt its use. 

A few points of correction may be noted. On page 86 the passing 
reference to Samson twice misspells the name. On page 79 it is incor- 
rectly implied that Corinth is located in Asia Minor. The comment on 
page 12 concerning the perfect participle in 1:23 as "denoting a continuing 
process which must be constantly reenacted in the life of the believer" 
does not give the true force of the original. 

This is an easily read volume that will prove helpful in the study 
of I Corinthians. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 

Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 


Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1971. 124 pp.$1.45, paper. 

This volume literally catapults the Corinthian church and Paul's 
teaching in I Corinthians into the contemporary American culture. As 
suggested by the title, the author, for many years a missionary in Bolivia, 
is fully abreast of developments here in America. 

Wagner does not offer a verse-by-verse commentary but rather a 
section-by-section exposition of the major problems dealt with in 
I Corinthians. The first two chapters effectively sketch the historical 
background of the Corinthians and the origin of the Corinthian church. 
Nine chapters deal with the major problems dealt with by Paul in this 
epistle. For pedagogical purposes each problem is dealt with under a 
threeford formula difficulty, doctrine, decision. The author makes clear 
that the difficulties are very modern, the doctrine is unchanging, but in 
several instances the decision recommended to the Corinthian church 
"was conditioned by certain historical or cultural factors which are not 
exactly the same today" (p. 35). The final chapter summarizes the 


basic teachings of the epistle. 

Wagner stresses that the general message of "First Corinthians 
is that carnality in the church must be conquered" (p. 122). Each 
chapter concludes with some "Study Questions" which make the volume 
well adapted as a guide for the group study of I Corinthians. It would 
be a worthy addition to any church library. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 


Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 127 pp. $1. 50, paper . 

In succinct fashion, the famed Australian classicist and Biblical 
scholar provides us with another in a long list of writings on the New 
Testament and its world. After a brief introduction to the critical 
questions involved (in which, as elsewhere in the work, he dismisses 
the objections to Pauline authorship rather peremptorily), he offers a 
digest of the thought of the various units and a verse-by-verse commen- 

The fact that the guide is designed for popular use explains why 
there is minimal discussion of some significant issues (e.g., the possi- 
ble presence of an incipient Gnosticism at Ephesus and Crete) and also 
why there are only brief, but tantalizing, looks at cultural backgrounds 
(though Blaiklock affirms that "the background of what we read and study 
has supreme importance" p. 9). For similar reasons, there are frequent 
suggestions that the acquisition of a little Greek is beneficial and not 
particularly onerous (e.g., p. 102). There is constant concern with the 
ways in which the message of the letters relates to the 1970's, along with 
a listing of "questions for discussion" at the end of the chapter sum- 

Taken within the limits which Blaiklock intends for it, the book 
provides a good basis for lay discussions, though it is somewhat strange 
that structural analyses of the letters are missing. Reference is 
frequently made to commentaries, dictionaries, and other essential 
tools for the more serious student. A recurring emphasis of the work , 
indeed of the Pastorals themselves, is that of the interlocking relation- 
ship between doctrine and conduct, a most apposite concern in the face 
of the current disdain for "theology" in popular circles. 

Devon H. Wiens 
Pacific College 
Fresno, California 


RENEW MY CHURCH. By David Haney. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 

95 pp. $1.50. 

Co., Grand Rapids, 1972. 154 pp. $2.95, paper. 
SONGS THAT LIFT THE HEART. By George Beverly Shea and Fred Bauer. Fleming H. Revell 

Co., Old Tappan, N.J. 125 pp. $3.95, cloth. 
SOLOMON TO THE EXILE. By John C. Whitcomb, Jr. BMH Books, Winona Lake, Indiana, 

1971. 182 pp. $2.95, paperback; $3.95, cloth. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF INSPIRATION. By James T. Jeremiah. Regular Baptist Press, Des 

Plaines, Illinois, 1972. 93 pp. $2.95, cloth. 
HEROD ANTIPAS. By Harold W. Hoehner. Cambridge University Press, (American Branch, 

32 East 57th St., New York, N. Y. 10022). 437 pp. $22.00. 
TELL THE WORLD (A Jesus People Manual). By Arthur Blessitt. Fleming H. Revell Co. 

Old Tappan, New Jersey, 1972. 64 pp. $.95. 
WRITTEN IN BLOOD. By Robert E. Coleman. Fleming H. Revell Co., Old Tappan, N.J. , 

1972. 128 pp. $3.50 

GEORGE MULLER, MAN OF FAITH & MIRACLES. By Basil Miller. Dimension Books, Bethany 

Fellowship, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., 1971. 159 pp. $1.25, paper. 
FATHER OF COMFORT. By Basilea Schlink. Dimension Books, Bethany Fellowship, Inc., 

Minneapolis, Minn., 1971. 125 pp. $1.25, paper. 
CHRISTIANITY AND THE OCCULT. By J. Stafford Wright. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 

160 pp. $. 75, paper. 
ELIJAH. By Howard G. Hendricks, Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 64 pp. $1.00, paper. 

Chicago, 1972. 156 pp. $2.95, paper. 
GOD. By Alfred & Dorothy Martin. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 62 pp. $.95, paper. 
MARK. By Irving L. Jensen. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 112 pp. $1.50, paper. 
PSYCHOLOGY FOR SUCCESSFUL EVANGELISM. By James H. Jauncey. Moody Press, Chicago, 

1972. 126 pp. $3.95, cloth. 
AMERICANS SPEAK OUT. By Charles E. Blair. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 119 pp. $2.95, 

JESUS' PROPHETIC SERMON. By Walker K. Price. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 160 pp. 

$4.95, cloth. 
THE JESUS PERSON POCKET PROMISE BOOK. Prepared by David Wilkerson with Jo An 

Summers. A Division of G/L Publications, Glendale, California, 1972. 121 pp. $1.00, 

WAYS TO HELP THEM LEARN: Early Childhood birth to 5 years. By Dolores Rowen. A 

Division of G/L Publications, Glendale, California, 1972. 152 pp. $1.95, paper. 

Publications, Glendale, California, 1972. 104 pp. $1.95, paper. 
IN THE TWINKLING OF AN EYE. By Sydney Watson. Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, 

New Jersey, 1933. 250 pp. $. 75, paper. 
CAMPUS AFLAME. By J. Edwin Orr. A Division of G/L Publications, Glendale, California, 

1971. 278 pp. $2.95, paper. 

NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES. By Hugh Steven. A Division of G/L Publications, Glendale, 

California, 1972. 118 pp. $1.25, paper. 
NEW MOON RISING. By Eugenia Price. Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, New Jersey, 

1972. 311 pp. $.95, paper. 

EVERY WALL SHALL FALL. By Hellen Battle. Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, New 

Jersey, 1972. 319 pp. $.95, paper. 
TEST YOUR BIBLE KNOWLEDGE. By Carl S. Shoup. Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, 

New Jersey, 1971. 221 pp. $.95, paper. 
MATCHED PEARLS. By Grace Livingston Hill. Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, New 

Jersey, 1972. 220 pp. $. 75, paper. 
THE STRANGE PROPOSAL. By Grace Livingston Hill. Fleming H. Revell Company, Old 

Tappan, New Jersey, 1972. 219 pp. $.75, paper. 
YOUR MARRIAGE - DUEL OR DUET? By Louis H. Evans. Fleming H. Revell Company, Old 

Tappan, New Jersey, 1972. 125 pp. $.95, paper. 
I'M NOT MAD AT GOD. By David Wilkerson. Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, New 

Jersey, 1972. 91 pp. $.75, paper. 
ARGUING WITH GOD. By Hugh Silvester. Inter-varsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1972. 

128 pp. $1.50, paper. 



IS REVOLUTION CHANGE? By Brian Griffiths, ed. Inter-varsity Press: Downers Grove, 

111., 1972. Ill pp. $1.25, paper. 
DID MAN JUST HAPPEN? By W. A. Criswell. Zondervan Publishing House: Grand Rapids, 

Michigan, 1972. 120 pp. $.95, paper. 
PLAIN TALK ON ACTS. By Manford George Gutzke. Zondervan Publishing House: Grand 

Rapids, 1972. 221pp. $1.95, paper. 
GREAT VERSES THROUGH THE BIBLE. By F. B. Meyer. Zondervan Publishing House: Grand 

Rapids, 1972. 469 pp. $7.95, hardback. 
THE DOCTRINE OF THE WORD OF GOD. By Thomas A. Thomas. Presbyterian and Reformed 

Publishing Company, 1972. 114 pp. , paper. 

terian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1972. 509 pp. $9.95, cloth. 
MACHEN'S NOTES ON GALATIANS. By John H. Skilton, Th.B. , Ph.D. Presbyterian and 

Reformed Publishing Company, Philadelphia, Pa. , 1972. 225 pp. , paper. 
SCIENTIFIC STUDIES IN SPECIAL CREATION. By Walter E. Lammerts, ed. Presbyterian & 

Reformed Publishing Co. , 1971. 343 pp. $6. 95, cloth. 
AN ESCHATOLOGY OF VICTORY. By J. Marcellus Kik. The Presbyterian and Reformed Pub- 
lishing Co., 1972. 268 pp. $3.95, paper. 
THE PASTORAL EPISTLES. By E. M. Blaiklock. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 

Michigan, 1972. 127 pp. $1.50, paper. 
ALL THE APOSTLES OF THE BIBLE. By Herbert Lockyer. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand 

Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 278 pp. $5.95, cloth. 
BRETHREN HANG LOOSE. By Robert C. Girard. (Intro, by Lawrence O. Richards). Zondervan 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 220 pp. $1.95, paper. 
MINISTERING TO THE YOUNG SINGLE ADULT. By Elmer L. Towns. Baker Book House, Grand 

Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 126 pp., $1.95, paper. 
SPEAKER'S SOURCE BOOK FOR TALKS TO TEENS. By Louis O. Caldwell. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 140 pp. $1.95, paper. 
INTERPRETATION OF THE SCRIPTURES. By Arthur W. Pink. Baker Book House, Grand 

Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 137 pp., $4.95, linen. 
EARTH'S MOST CHALLENGING MYSTERIES. By Reginald Daly. Baker Book House, Grand 

Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 396 pp. $3.95, paper. 
MASTERS OF DECEPTION. By F. W. Thomas. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 

1972. 122 pp. $2.95, paper. 
THE BOOK OF NUMBERS. By Kenneth E. Jones. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 

1972. 90 pp. , $1. 95, paper. 
MOSES AND THE GODS OF EGYPT. By John J. Davis. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 

Michigan, 1971. 310 pp. , $3. 50, paper. 
CHRIST AND YOUR PROBLEMS. By Jay E. Adams. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 

1972. 19pp., $.35, $3.50 per dozen, paper. 
DESIGNED TO BE LIKE HIM. By J. Dwight Pentecost. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 288 pp. 

$2.95, paper. 

Chicago, 1972. 287 pp. $4.95, cloth. 
HOLY SPIRIT BAPTISM. By Anthony A. Hoekema. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 

Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 101pp. $1.95. 
THE POLITICS OF GOD AND THE POLITICS OF MAN. By Jacques Ellul. William B. Eerdmans 

Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 199 pp. $3.45, paper. 
WHAT CHRIST THINKS OF THE CHURCH. By John R. W. Stott. William B. Eerdmans Pub- 
lishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 128 pp. $1.50, paper. 
A PLACE TO BELONG. By Robert A. Williams. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 

Michigan, 1972. 175 pp. $3.95, cloth. 
THE FRUIT OF THE SPIRIT. By John W. Sanderson. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 

Michigan, 1972. 128 pp. $1.50. 
SO NOW YOU ARE A CHRISTIAN. By Stephen W. Brown. Fleming H. Revell Co. , Old Tappan, 

New Jersey, 1972. 127 pp. $4.50, cloth. 
HOLY SPIRIT BAPTISM. By Anthony A. Hoekema. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 

Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 101 pp. $1.95. 
HOW TO FIND FULLNESS OF POWER. By R. A. Torrey. Bethany Fellowship, Inc. , Minnea- 
polis,' Minn., Reprint from 1903 ed. , 106 pp. $.95. 


THE CHRISTIAN FAMILY. By Larry Christenson. Bethany Fellowship, Inc., Minneapolis, 

Minn. , 1972. 60 pp. $. 95. 
WHAT CHRIST THINKS OF THE CHURCH. By John R. W. Stott. Inter-Varsity Press, Downers 

Grove, Illinois, Second American Ed., 1972. 128 pp., $1.50, paper. 
MORALITY, LAW AND GRACE. By J. N. D. Anderson. Inter- Varsity Press, Downers Grove, 

Illinois, 1972. 128 pp. $1.95, cloth. 
THE BIBLE: GOD'S WORD. By Tenis Van Kooten. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 

231 pp. $2.95, paper. 
COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF ISAIAH. By Edward J. Young. William B. Eerdmans Pub- 
lishing Co. , 1972. 579 pp. $9.95, cloth. 

Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, Second Printing, 1972. 188 pp. $.95, paper. 
FAITH THAT WORKS. By Harold L. Fickett, Jr. Regal Books, Gospel Light Publications, 

Glendale, 1972. 167 pp., paper, $.95. 
ROMANS (Exposition of Chap. 5). By D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones. Zondervan Publishing House, 

Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1971. 370 pp., $6.95, cloth. 
LECTURES IN SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY. By Robert L. Dabney. Zondervan Publishing House, 

Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan Reprint Ed., 1972. 903 pp. $12.95, cloth. 
357 SERMON OUTLINES. By Jabez Burns. Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 

1971. 667 pp. $4.95, cloth. 
500 SKETCHES AND SKELETONS OF SERMONS. By Jabez Burns. Kregel Publications, Grand 

Rapids, 5th printing, 1971. 638 pp. $4.95, cloth. 
COMMENTARY ON FIRST PETER. By Robert Leighton. Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, 

Michigan, 1972. 511 pp. $8.95, cloth. 
COMMENTARY ON ROMANS. By William S. Plumer. Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, 

First Kregel Publication Ed., 1971. 646 pp. $8.95, cloth. 
THE CHRISTIAN FAITH. By Olin Alfred Curtis. Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, Reprinted, 

1971. 541 pp. $7.95, cloth. 

THE CHURCH IN GOD'S PROGRAM. By Robert L. Saucy. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 254 

pp. (no price given), cloth. 
SUCCESSFUL MINISTRY TO THE RETARDED. By Elmer L. Towns; Roberta L. Groff. Moody 

Press, Chicago, 1972. 144 pp. $2.25, paper. 
YOU AND YOURS. By Ellen McKay Trimmer. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 224 pp. $3.95, 

WORLD IN REBELLION. By John E. Hunter. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 143 pp. $1.95, 

SIGNS AND WONDERS. By Roger Elwood, Ed. Fleming H. Revell Co. , Old Tappan, New 

Jersey, 1972. 157 pp. $3.95. 
SEARCHLIGHT ON BIBLE WORDS. Compiled by James C. Hefley with John Beekman. Zondervan 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 198 pp. $4.95. 
A MAN OF THE WORD - Life of G. Campbell Morgan. By Jill Morgan. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, Reprinted 1972. 404 pp., $3.95, paper. 
HOW WE GOT OUR BIBLE. By Ralph Earle. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Reprinted 1972. 

119 pp. $1.50. 
A BIBLICAL MANUAL ON SCIENCE AND CREATION. By Henry M. Morris. Institute for Creation 

Research, 2716 Madison Ave., San Diego, California 92116, 1972. 80 pp. $1.50. 
EVANGELISM NOW. Edited by Ralph G. Turnbull. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 

112 pp. $1.95. 
SUCCESSFUL CHALK TALKING - A Complete Guide. Robert Leonard Smith. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1972. 103 pp. $3.95, paper. 
HOPE FOR YOUR CHURCH. By Dr. Harold L. Fickett, Jr. Regal Div. , Gospel Light Publi- 
cations, Glendale, 1972. 159 pp. $3.95. 

Book House, Grand Rapids, 1960. 
WOULD YOU BELIEVE. Paraphrased by Kenneth Taylor. Gosepl Light Publications, Glendale, 

California, 1972. 709 pp. $1.95, paper. 
THE VISIONS AND PROPHECIES OF ZECHARIAH. By David Baron. Kregel Publications-, Grand 

Rapids, (New Kregel Pub. Edition, 1972). 555 pp. $6.95. 
THE ARAB ISRAELI STRUGGLE. By Charles F. Pfeiffer. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 

1972. 112 pp. $.95. 

AMOS - PROPHET OF SOCIAL JUSTICE. By Page H. Kelley. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 
Reprinted 1972. 134 pp. $1.25. 



Winona Lake, Indiana 


SPRING 1973 

Vol. 14 1 No. 2 



A publication of Grace Theological Seminary 




THE SERVANT OF GOD Herman A. Hoyt 3 

MOSES Cyril J. Barber 14 


Part I of the Louis S. Bauman 
Memorial Lectures for 1973 



GRACE JOURNAL is published three times each year (Winter, Spring, Fall) by Grace Theological Seminary, in co- 
operation with the Grace Seminary Alumni Association. 

EDITORIAL POLICY: The editors of GRACE JOURNAL hold the historic Christian faith, and accept without reservation 
the inerrancy of Scripture and the premUlennial view of eschatology. A more complete expression of their theological 
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necessarily endorse every opinion that may be expressed by individual writers in the JOURNAL. 

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ADDRESS: All subscriptions and review copies of books should be sent to GRACE JOURNAL, Box 397, Winona Lake, 
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Copyright, 1973 by Grace Theological Seminary. All rights r 


Published by 







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JOHN C. WHITCOMB, JR., Managing Editor 

S. HERBERT B ESS, Book Review Editor 

GRACE JOURNAL is indexed by 

FOR MOSHER LIBRARY (Dallas Theological Seminary) 


President, Grace Theological Seminary 

'For a great door, and effectual is opened unto me, and 
there are many adversaries" (I Corinthians 16:9) 

This discussion will center in the earthborn problems of the 
servant of God. As a proper approach to the subject, several things 
need to be said at the outset: first, something about definition; second, 
something about description; and third, something about diagnosis. 

The definition of a problem may be stated as follows: It is a 
difficult situation involving uncertainty of solution. In the strictest sense 
of a definition, this cannot be true for the child of God. For the re- 
sources of God are sufficient for every difficulty and there are no un- 
certainties. But in the more relative sense of the definition, a sphere 
in which most of us move because we fail to appropriate fully the re- 
sources of God and to apprehend clearly the truth of God, it is painfully 
true. There are difficulties and the solution seems uncertain. 

In attempting a description of problems, several characteristics 
deserve attention. Problems are earthborn and reside essentially in 
people. This explains why men have sought isolation from society as 
a solution to their problems. Usually they discovered that the seat of 
their problems centered in a person from whom they could not retreat. 
Problems are inevitable in a world of sinning people. It was sin that 
introduced difficulty and uncertainty into the stream of human relations. 
It is therefore to be expected that problems will be the course of human 
experience until the factor of sin is removed from the scene by the grace 
of God. 

It is therefore an inescapable conclusion that problems will con- 
stitute the obstacles through which the servant of God must make prog- 
ress. The servant of God must associate with people where the problems 
center. These people possess the sinful nature which produces the 
problems. There is no such thing as turning back in the path appointed 
of God. So, to make progress, the servant of God must confront the 
problem and find a solution. It is therefore a comforting fact of history 


to the servant of God that problems are not insuperable. With renewed 
assurance the servant of God can move forward, knowing that "our suf- 
ficiency is from God" (2 Cor. 3:5) and that we can do all things through 
Christ who strengthens us (Phil. 4:13). 

Precise diagnosis of the problems is the most important factor, 
perhaps, in finding the solution. It is like isolating the cause of a 
disease. It is not enough to recognize the symptoms and pore over 
them. The symptoms are the effects produced by the problem. They 
distress and irritate and aggravate and destroy. But all the effort 
expended to mollify and alleviate and arrest the symptoms is largely 
wasted because the real cause remains and the relief is only temporary. 
To penetrate to the cause and have the courage to face the problem in 
all of its grisly reality is probably the most soul-searching and the 
most soul -revealing experience any servant of God will ever have. 

This discussion will not constitute a diagnosis. It will be nothing 
more than a listing of the areas where problems can and do occur. It 
will then be up to each man himself to examine his situation, and in all 
honesty with himself and God, be prepared to put his finger on the prob- 
lem or problems in his area and deal with them. 

I will now bring to your attention seven areas where problems 
do arise, and can and may arise in the course of your experience. 


The Apostle Paul, writing to his dearly beloved son in the faith, 
issued an admonition that deserves primary attention. "Take heed unto 
thyself" (I Tim. 4:16). I am convinced, after many years of experience, 
both for myself as well as others, that we either failed to recognize 
this verse, or else we moved swiftly to the remainder and laid the em - 
phasis on doctrine. And as a result, at that point where problems occur, 
and where they are most likely to affect our ministry, and over which 
we are the most likely to be able to apply solution, we failed, and the 
tragic consequences are degrees of faltering, fruitlessness, uncertainty, 
and absence of joy. I will discuss this under three heads: personality, 
performance, progress. 

Personality is that collection of characteristics that qualify us for 
ordination to the ministry. These are spiritual, moral, mental. It is 
recognized by all of us that there is no absolute degree in which these 
are possessed. But, they are present in such degree that they are 
recognized by examining elders and electing congregations to be at least 
in minimum sufficient for induction into the ministry. Does this describe 


a garden of virtues within which there shall be no cultivation and the 
emerging of new flowers and the giving of greater fragrance? So far 
as I am able to observe, not one of the qualities is necessarily static 
and is therefore incapable of further development. 

Performance is a good word in this modern industrial society. 
It is likewise good for the minister. His method for commanding respect 
is that of being an example of the believers in spiritual conduct (I Tim. 
4:12). To get recognition as a faithful shepherd is to be absolutely dedicated 
to his task, to give himself wholly to the things of the ministry (I Tim. 
4:13-15). This ministry must take first place. He must give himself 
to reading, exhortation, doctrine, ministry (I Tim. 4:13,15). Though he 
must have a schedule, and follow it as nearly as possible, he is bound 
to find that it will be interrupted over and over again. Why? Because 
the pressures of his task do not follow a schedule. And they must take 

Progress ought to be evident in his experience. That is the point 
of Paul's words to Timothy, "that thy profiting may appear to all" (I Tim. 
4:15). The word profiting refers to progress made through difficulty. 
Every hindering circumstance confronting any man will be the experience 
of the minister. There is no use to cite these as excuses for failure 
to move ahead. He must rise above the obstacles and find a way to 
move ahead. Every week ought to find him preaching better sermons, 
teaching better classes, giving better counsel, developing spiritually, 
reaching the lost with greater effectiveness. This should be manifest to 
his people, not only those on the inside of the church but also those 
among whom he moves on the outside. It is this progiess that builds 
confidence in people and creates the determination to retain and support 
this man in his leadership. 

Therefore, take heed to thyself. This is the primary and basic 
problem confronting every pastor and servant of God. 


When outlining the qualifications for the ministry, the Apostle 
Paul made clear reference to the family. The man himself is to be 
"the husband of one wife" (I Tim. 3:2), and he is to be "one that ruleth 
well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity; 
for if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take 
care of the church of God?" (I Tim. 3:4-5). Human nature being what 
it is, the response of men follows the same principle in all ages. The 
words of the Apostle Paul now have the seal of the Spirit of God upon 


them, so the problem of the family is therefore quite real. For anyone 
who seeks to serve God and in any sense to exercise oversight, his 
second major concern must be his family. 

The head of the family is very possibly primarily responsible 
for the situation that develops in the family. At least that is the very 
clear implication from this passage of Scripture. He is probably mainly 
responsible for the kind of woman he has for a wife. He was certainly 
aware of the qualities of the woman that aroused his affection. He then 
deliberately chose her for a companion. From that moment on he had it 
in his power to mould her by his devotion to her. Love has its own 
way of weaving its spell over the object of its affection. Thus Solomon 
spoke of the way of a man with a maid, and admitted it was too wonderful 
for him. The phrase "the husband of one wife" quite literally means a 
one-woman man. This means that a man gives his devotion to one woman. 
That kind of man will beget the same in his wife. And where love is 
the prevailing atmosphere, the element of authority is not difficult to 

The wife in the family then takes her place as an object of em- 
ulation in the Christian society. Certainly she will seek to do her 
husband good, to advance the ministry in which he is engaged, to cooperate 
so that in this little kingdom they are building there will be harmony, 
prosperity, good will and praise to God. The finances will constitute 
a large part of her responsibility. Their income will be limited. But 
she will have taken it as from the Lord and be subject to it. This 
will limit the dwelling, the furniture, the clothing, the food. It may 
be necessary under most conditions to exercise frugality in everything. 
But such sacrifice will be with joy as to the Lord. And the atmosphere 
created by the wife will be radiated to the children. Where she shows 
subjection to the husband, she will inspire this among women in the 

The children play a major role in the success of the servant of 
God. A well-regulated family is a recommendation. Children need to 
know their place, that is, to be in subjection. But this cannot be realized 
by mere compulsion. To rule well means more than the mere exercise 
of force. In such a case the home could turn out to be a concentration 
camp. It means to be able to stand before. This suggests first of all 
the ability to set a good example of all that is presented as the ideal 
for life. Tempered with real affection for the children, authority will 
be accepted willingly, and in cases where the situation is far more 
tense, will even in those cases be tolerated. It was the absence of this 
in Eli, the priest of Israel, that brought the condemnation of the Lord. 
Eli's children were wicked. They sensed a lack of devotion to their 
father to the sacrifices of God (I Sam. 2:12-17). They encouraged this 
among the people as well as leading the people in gross immorality 


(2:22-25), and in addition to their vile conduct, Eli made no real effort 
to restrain them (3:11-14). 

In the privacy and inner sanctum of the home this confronts the 
servant of God. It is here that he lays the ground work for the larger 
ministry beyond. 


Addressing the Ephesian elders the Apostle Paul said, "Take heed 
therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock over the which the Holy 
Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he 
hath purchased with his own blood" (Acts 20:28). This charge is replete 
with problems. But they can be summarized under three heads: identifi- 
cation, administration, and compensation. 

The problem of identification stands at the head of the list, and 
in some sense incorporates all the rest. That is, therein lies the solu- 
tion to all the other problems. "If a man desire the office of a bishop, 
he desireth a good work" (I Tim. 3:1). Contrary to the English transla - 
tion, this does not refer to an office or position. It refers to an oppor- 
tunity for service. This is clear when one considers the description of 
the task with which the sentence ends, namely, a good work. The word 
bishop refers to function and means overseer in the sense of one who 
visits another to communicate good. This calls for identification with 
the flock of God, so that what they experience he experiences. What 
they feel he feels. It is this intimate understanding and recognition of 
need that leads the overseer to feed the flock of God willingly, not as 
though compelled, not for the sake of money, but because here is an 
opportunity to communicate benefit, not as exercising lordship over, but 
as typ es to the flock. Just as Christ, the Chief Shepherd, identified 
himself so completely with the flock that he gave His life in their behalf, 
so should the elder (I Pet. 5:1-4; Matt. 20:28). 

The problem of administration grows out of identification with 
the congregation. It requires the exercise of wisdom more than the 
demonstration of authority. The focal point is always what is best. The 
provision for this task is the message of the Word of God. It is profit- 
able for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteous- 
ness (2 Tim. 3:16). That does not mean that this message is to be 
used as the whiplash in the moment of trial. The foundation must be 
laid ahead of time. But always in method the minister should preach 
the word, be instant in season and out of season; reprove, rebuke, 
exhort, with all longsuffering and doctrine (2 Tim. 4:2). The word 


longsuffering is especially pertinent in approaching the problems of the 
parish. It means that the leader holds back his wrath in order that he 
might accomplish a beneficial end. The Lord is constantly doing that 
with us. It is therefore in order for us to exercise the same for them. 

Few there are in the ministry who are not confronted with the 
problem of compensation . It is true that "the elders that rule well 
(should) be counted worthy of double honor, especially they who labor 
in the word and doctrine. For the Scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle 
the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The laborer is worthy of his 
reward" (I Tim. 5:17-18). Some pastors wonder whether their congrega- 
tion ever knew that passage was in the Bible, or if knowing, care less. 
In discussing the use of Christian liberty the apostle argues convincingly 
in the first half of I Corinthians, chapter nine, that a pastor has the 
right to expect pay. But in the last half of that chapter he points out 
how that right ought to be exercised if it is to be effective. At this 
point it would be well for the pastor to take a hard look at the proper 
way to bring this responsibility of the congregation to their attention. 
A mere barrage of denunciation could well fail, where an overmeasure 
of benediction would succeed. 


A survey of the New Testament will reveal the progress in estab- 
lishing churches. At the outset there was one local congregation that 
centered in Jerusalem (Acts 2:47). But this could not last, if the great 
commission was to be carried out. In the good providence of God it 
took a persecution to scatter believers and begin the spread of churches 
(Acts 8:1). It was not long until there was a church among the Gentiles 
at Antioch (Acts 11:19-30). From there the church spread to Cyprus, 
Asia Minor, Macedonia, and Greece (Acts 13:1; 14:23, 28; 15:1-6,22,41). 
In the 1900 years since, churches have been established in almost every 
part of the world. There are two great segments of the professing church: 
Catholicism and Protestantism, with proliferating splits in both segments, 
to say nothing about the cults that are clamoring for equal status, and 
the great pagan religions that are emerging in our own society. These 
in part or all will confront the pastor with problems. 

The doctrinal will be the first consideration of those who move 
in conservative circles. And the problem will focus on what attitude 
and methods should be employed toward those churches that do not sub- 
scribe to the doctrinal tenets of the pastor. The problem will range in 
religious bodies from those that are positively pagan to those that 
constitute a conservative variation. It will not be difficult to make 
pronouncement on paganism. The problem will be slightly more difficult 


in dealing with Catholicism. The cults will accentuate the problem. 
Liberalism will complicate matters much more because it employs the 
same terminology even though with different meaning. Denominational 
differences produce one of the most touchy problems. And the variation 
from congregation to congregation, even in the denomination, is the 
stickiest issue of all. 

The ethical will confront the pastor as his most worrisome prob- 
lem. Even if it were true that all doctrine were the same, it still would 
not be true that practice would be the same. Starting with the same 
premise of doctrine, it is amazing how the application varies. In one 
case there may be the strictest of separation, whereas in another separa- 
tion may be practiced in the loosest fashion. All this must be traced 
to the measure of understanding and submission to the Word of God. 
The degree may be high among some, but low in others, and in some 
totally absent. This constitutes the problem of the pastor in his wider 
associations, in the local community, and even in his own local church. 
Nor can the problem be ignored. He must find some solution: a solu- 
tion that will satisfy the Word of God, his own local church, and his 
own conscience. 

The personal also constitutes a problem for every pastor. Being 
what he is, and having developed over a certain pattern, he is bound to 
have his own feelings on matters. Unconsciously imbedded in his nature 
will be a desire to conscript a following for his own church, perhaps 
even for himself. This will lead him to develop certain attitudes and 
responses to any church, pastor, or form that varies from his own. 
This is not new. The Apostle John complained to the Lord Jesus that 
a certain one was casting out demons in his name, but he didn't belong to 
the apostolic company (Mark 9:38-40). The disciples of John the Baptist 
were concerned that when Jesus started His public ministry it seemed 
that all men were going to Jesus and no longer following with John (John 
3:25-30). Within a local area or congregation there could be good reason 
for concern on the part of the pastor in the face of such trends. But 
he will need to be careful that these reasons are not borne of personal 


The pastor is called to community. He must live and work among 
people. That is his field. He may be assigned by the Lord to a rural 
community. He may find himself in a small town or a moderately-sized 
city. Or he may perchance be located in a large city. Each place 
will possess certain excellencies that attract him, and certain faults 
that repel him. The principal virtue of each centers specifically in the 


fact that there are people with whom to work. One field may appear 
to be easy, while another appears to be difficult. But in either case, 
it can be safely concluded that people are sinners and need the grace 
of God. The greater the degree of imperfection the more that pastor 
is needed. It is therefore utterly inconsistent with the call and place- 
ment of the Lord to quarrel with the circumstances. What he needs to 
do is confront the problems and devise some method of solving them. 
But he must remember that communication of good requires interaction. 

The cultural pattern of the community can well constitute a major 
problem for the pastor. When Paul went to Ephesus he was confronted 
with patterns of culture that were on the lowest level of ethics, and 
entirely inimical to the message he was preaching. If you should come 
to Indiana you would find a hysteria that stands squarely in the way of 
many programs you would like to promote. It will be the business of 
the pastor to maneuver around and through these obstacles to make prog- 
ress in the work of the Lord. 

Governmental structure in communities will pose difficulties that 
are sometimes almost insurmountable. With liberalism insinuating itself 
into government, this sometimes results in discrimination of one kind 
or another. It may be as to messages that go out over the air. It may 
be with respect to a location for a church building. As government and 
false religion get more closely linked together, it may issue in restriction 
to the preaching of the gospel and the right of public assembly, such as 
in Russia and China. 

Religious alignment has always been one of the major factors 
hindering progress. In this country it is not uncommon to hear that a 
community is entirely given over to unbelief. Or that the community 
is predominantly disposed to Roman Catholicism. Or that a certain 
community is dominated by one Protestant denomination. Or that sectari- 
anism is entrenched and it will be impossible to break through this 

That all these things pose problems, there is no question. But 
that these problems constitute reasons in themselves why the work of the 
Lord shall not be promoted numerically and spiritually is not true. When 
God called a man to a place, He first surveyed it and listed the problems. 
Then He expects to provide the necessary solution to each one. And 
this He will do through the leader of the congregation. 

"Faithful is he that calleth you, who also will do it" (I Thess. 



Though Christianity came into existence during the imperial sway 
of the Roman Empire, it recognized, nevertheless, that believers would 
be living in every country and every clime before the passing of many 
years. This has since turned out to be the case. The New Testament 
records have therefore made adequate provision for the functioning of 
the Church in any country. The principles of operation are adaptable 
anywhere and under any set of circumstances. Though a great deal is 
said about how Christians should respond to the treatment they receive 
(Rom. 13:1-7; Gal. 6:9-10; I Tim. 2:1-2; I Peter 2:12-23), I want to men- 
tion specifically the trends that are now creating problems for the pastor. 

Philosophical trends are changing the thinking of people on the 
whole scope of reality. These trends are definitely in the direction of 
removing the supernatural from the realm of consideration, and reduc- 
ing the perspective of reality to the human and natural level. This is 
placing man in the position of the supreme good and the chief end in 

Sociological trends grow out of this movement of thought. It 
produces either isolation or integration of the nationalities or the races. 
It produces a new approach to property, industry, education, morality, 
because it arrogates to man the final word of authority. This temper 
is gradually filtering down through the various levels of society: those 
benefitting from higher education, next, those in secondary education, 
and finally to the lowest level. 

Political trends follow pretty closely on the heels of the preced- 
ing two. Government in the hands of the people is being moulded to 
satisfy the thinking and desires of the people. This country is gradually 
becoming a socialized state, and except for some unforeseen crisis 
which could break up the trends now in operation, it will continue in 
this direction until the ultimate is reached. 

Financial trends are merely the handmaidens of all that precedes. 
The movement now in process is inflation. For this there seems to be 
no apparent terminus. The change of administration can arrest the prog- 
ress, but probably can do nothing more. The programs now in progress 
cannot be reversed, even if there were a desire to do so. So the pros- 
pect is that others will be generated in order to live with those now in 

All these trends make their impact upon the pastor, and create 
problems with which he must live. 



In these days of shrinking distances with high powered means of 
transportation and communication, every pastor is a citizen of a world 
community. The movements of the world are therefore being felt in 
every nook and cranny. Change is perhaps the most evident of all -- 
trends that bring their problems ever closer to each congregation of 
believers. In order to claim the promise of I John 2:17, "The world 
passeth away and the lust thereof, but he that doeth the will of God 
abideth forever, " one must be highly knowledgable of the trends and the 

The trend toward internationalism is gaining momentum. The 
League of Nations has been superseded by the United Nations, and even 
though there seems to be little fruit from the endeavor, the principle 
is now fixed in the minds of men and they will not abandon it until some 
united state of the world is achieved. 

A similar trend in the field of ecclesiasticism is now running 
parallel with that among nations, and with increased acceleration. To 
the dismay of many in conservative circles, this move is being welcomed 
with eager acclaim. As this proceeds, it is evident that a closer tie 
is being made with the political element of nations (Rev. 17:1-3). 

The trend toward pantheism in thinking, that is both secular and 
sacred, is providing a groundwork for both the religious and the polit- 
ical in life. This sort of thinking will make way for a great political 
genius to appear on the scene and be accepted as the solution to the 
confusion that now exists among the nations. In this same context the 
nations of mankind will be prepared to receive this one as God. 

The trend toward degenerationism is already making marked prog- 
ress in the toboggan slide to the bottom. A whole new ideology has 
gripped the nations, especially evident among the younger generation, 
that doubtless cannot be stopped until it has reached that stage when 
every imagination of the thoughts of men's hearts is only evil continually. 
(Gen. 6:5; cf. Luke 17:26-30). 


These are the many problems that confront the servant of God. 
The situation is serious, though not beyond hope. God placed us in the 
world, and promised to keep us from the evil. He appointed to us a 
responsibility, and He will enable us to the fulfillment of that task. 


When the situation gets to the place where there is no solution to the 
problems, that will be the time when He is finished in His work with 
the Church and will call us out of this world. That could be sooner 
than we think. It could be today. But until He is pleased to call us 
to Himself, let us not forget that the first half of the verse with which 
I opened reads, "For a great door and effectual has been opened." 


A Study of Hebrews 11:23 -29a 

Cyril J. Barber 

Rosemead Graduate School of Psychology 

Rosemead, California 

Moses has been called "the spoilt child of fortune. He seem- 
ingly had everything. In spite of the fact that he was born a slave, he 
was adopted by Pharaoh's daughter and reared as a prince in the palace. 
He had all the advantages that money, status and education could confer 
on him. As a scholar he had the privilege of graduating from the 
Harvard of his day. As a statesman he knew the subtle pleasure of 
having courtiers and politicans pay him compliments and ask for his 
advice. As a prince he knew what it was like to have people wait upon 
him, study his whims and fancies, and see that his every wish was sup- 
plied. In a very real sense, fortune smiled upon him. 

The Bible, however, does not refer to Moses as a scholar or 
statesman, but as a man of faith . It speaks of him as enduring trial 
and misfortune, and of facing insuperable obstacles and overcoming for- 
midable forces by faith. 

The writer to the Hebrews, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, 
selects certain specific incidents from the life of Moses and uses these 
to show that the life of faith runs contrary to our natural desires and 

In order to understand the development of the writer's theme we 
must first consider the conditions under which Moses was born and the 
example set for him by his parents. 

The Preparation of Faith 

As we follow the account of the birth of Moses in the early chap- 
ters of the book of Exodus we find that a new king has come to the throne 
of Egypt. The Hyksos, or "shepherd kings, "^ have invaded the land. 
They look upon the large number of Hebrews in the land as a threat to 
the national security and feel that if the Hebrews become more numerous, 
in time they will overthrow their own garrisons of soldiers and completely 
dominate the land. * 



In attempting to subdue the children of Israel, the Hyksos try 
several strategies. First of all, the taskmasters are instructed to 
afflict the Hebrews with heavy burdens and make them build the storage 
cities. 4 This plan does not work, for the more the children of Israel 
are oppressed, the more they multiply. They then try to break their 
spirit with even harder service, but this also fails. * Later, when the 
Hyksos have been driven from the land, Amenhotep I (ca. 1548-1528 B.C. ) 
and his successor Thutmose I (ca. 1528-1508 B.C. ) decide to put an end 
to all the male children who might later grow up to fight against them. 
Amenhotep I determines that the male children shall be put to death at 
birth. This plan miscarries, because the Hebrew midwives will not 
follow his instructions. Finally, under Thutmose I a decision is made 

whereby every son born to the Hebrews shall be thrown into the River 
Nile, but that every daughter shall be allowed to live. ' It is against 
this background that the story of Moses is set. 

When Moses is born, his parents conceal him for three months 
"because they see that he is a beautiful child, and they are not made 
afraid by the decree of the king. "° In his rare beauty they discern a 
definite token of divine favor and, by reason of their faith, they are 
prepared to conceal Moses, believing that God has some special destiny 
for him. 

When Moses is three months old his parents find that they can 
hide him no longer. His mother decides that the only way to circum- 
vent the king's decree is for the king's daughter to take her son into 
her special favor. Making a basket out of reeds, Moses* mother daubs 
it with asphalt and pitch so that it is watertight, and then with Moses 
in it, she places the little ark of bulrushes in the river near to the 
place where the king's daughter, Hatshepsut (ca. 1504-1483 B.C.), comes 
to bathe. She then stations Miriam, the sister of Moses, near at hand 
so that she can observe what happens. In the providence of God, 
Hatshepsut comes down to the river and while she and her attendants 
are strolling along the river bank, she notices the basket among the 
reeds. Hatshepsut immediately sends one of her maids to fetch it. 
When the basket is opened, Moses awakens and begins to cry. His tears 
move the heart of the princess, and she takes him in her arms to com- 
fort him. 

From her place of concealment Miriam sees all that is taking 
place. When she observes how the face of Hatshepsut softens into smiles, 
and how she pities the child, Miriam runs to the princess and asks, 
"Shall I go and call a nurse for you from the Hebrew women, that she 
may nurse the child for you?" When Hatshepsut agrees, Miriam runs 
off and calls her mother. To the mother of Moses, Hatshepsut says: 
"Take this child away and nurse him for me and I shall give you your 


wages. Instead of Moses being put to death in accordance with the 

decree of the king, he is now cared for by his own mother at royal 
expense; and Moses' mother has the pleasure of looking after her own 
son until he is weaned. 10 

In the Hebrew society the home is central. It is in the home 
that the child learns the knowledge of the Lord. A mother's greatest 
work is to rear her children so that they may know the living and true 
God. Moses' mother realized that her time with Moses was short. When 
did she teach him of the Lord, and of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph? 
Perhaps we have some evidence in the writings of Moses himself. In 
one of his final addresses to the children of Israel before they entered 
the promised land, he said: "These words with which I am now charging 
you shall be written on your heart; and you shall impress them deeply 
upon your children; you shall talk of them while you sit at home, while 
you walk on the road, when you lie down, and when you get up; . . ."& 
In giving this charge to the children of Israel, Moses may well have had 
in mind the fine example of his own godly mother. It is highly probable 
that as his parents took him for short walks, sat with him in the shade 
of a palm tree, fed him at the table or put him to bed at night, they 
slowly but persistently instilled into him a knowledge of the truth. 

Unfortunately it is in the area of the home that Christian parents 
have failed so tragically. All too often we have abdicated our position 
and left the nurture of our children to the Sunday School where the teach- 
er is given only one hour in the entire week to instruct our children in 
the way of the Lord. What a difference there would be if we, as 
Christian parents, followed the advice of Moses and the example of his 
mother, and made the training of our children in the truths of the Word 
a daily, family affair. It is in the home that character is molded, 
habits are formed, and affections are cultivated. 

We do not know how long Moses' mother had the privilege of 
teaching and training her son. The years passed all too quickly, and 
one day Moses was taken from her to the palace where he officially be- 
came the adopted son of Hatshepsut. From now on his training would 
be in Egyptian schools. Stephen tells us that "Moses was educated in 
all the learning of the Egyptians, and he was mighty in words and 
deeds. " - Philo, in his work on the Life of Moses , credits Moses with 
proficiency in mathematics, geometry, poetry, music, philosophy, as- 
trology, and education. As the "son of Pharaoh's daughter" Moses would 
have had an excellent education, and would ha\e attained a mastery of 
the arts and sciences of the day, and been thoroughly versed in Near 
Eastern languages and literature. Not only was he "mighty in words," 
he also was recognized for his "deeds. " The Jewish historian, Josephus, 
in his Antiquities of the Jews , says that Moses became the general of 
Pharaoh's army and achieved a significant victory against the Nubians. 


In all of this time the seeds of faith which had been sown in the 
heart of Moses by his godly parents were beginning to bear fruit. At 
about the age of forty a crisis takes place in his life.^ 

As we follow the Biblical record we watch Moses as he faces the 
test of worldly ambition. 

The Renunciation of Faith 

Moses has been brought up in the court of Pharaoh with all the 
advantages that such a position could offer him. Power and prestige and 
popularity are his. He is at the height of his career and has every 
material blessing and advantage for which any person could ever wish. 
The Biblical writer, however, tells us that it was at this time that he 
turned his back on everything that had characterized his life at court. 
"By reason of his faith Moses, when he had become of age, refused to 
be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, because he had chosen rather 
to endure ill-treatment with the people of God, than for a brief time to 
enjoy sin's pleasure; since he had reckoned the reproach of the Messiah 
a greater wealth than the treasures of Egypt; for he was constantly look- 
ing away unto the reward" (w. 24-26). 

Why did he do this when, like Joseph, he might have become vir- 
tual ruler of the land? What motivated him to follow such a seemingly 
quixotic course of action? It would have been easy for him to reason, 
Why not stay here where Providence has placed me, and use my position 
for the benefit of my countrymen. Surely I can do more for my people 
in my present position than I could ever do if I were one of them. By 
using my influence I can make their situation tolerable, and help to 
alleviate their oppression. 

Only by a decisive analysis of his situation, and with rare spir- 
itual insight into the nature of the problem, could Moses choose correctly. 

As Moses wrestled with the problem in his own heart and mind 
he must have realized that to choose to stay at court would be of great 
personal advantage to him. However, he excluded all selfish motives 
from his consideration. He had the inward certainty that God had sum- 
moned him to identify himself with his people and therefore he was not 
about to allow himself to be side-tracked into a course of action which 
would contradict his calling. 

Secondly, he realized that if he remained in Pharaoh's court, 
strong political pressures would inevitably be brought to bear upon him. 
He would be engaged in a continuous struggle because of his divided 
loyalties. Moses had the presence of mind to realize that loyalty to 


Israel was incompatible with loyalty to the people of Egypt. How could 
he rule one group and at the same time favor another? One false move 
would give his political opponents all they needed to discredit him. 

Lastly, Moses realized that the finest ideals sooner or later 
become tarnished and deteriorate under political machinations. He real- 
ized that to renounce his position in the palace was better for him, and 
better, too, for the people of God, for then he would be free to help 

With these thoughts in mind he turned his back upon the court 
and all that it had to offer him in personal prestige and ambition. By 
reason of his faith, Moses refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's 
daughter. He chose rather to endure ill-treatment with the people of 
God than to enjoy sin's pleasure for a season, for he was constantly 
looking away to the day of reward. 

By faith, Moses came to understand that life is fleeting, and that 
temporal preferment brings only temporal rewards. He was looking away 
to a future day of recompense, and in the light of that future even his 
present position with all its power and privilege faded into insignificance. 

When Moses chose to identify himself with his despised people, 
he had no knowledge of the grand and glorious destiny which awaited the 
children of Israel. He saw about him only men and women subjected to 
slavery and compelled to endure the harsh tyranny of taskmasters. It 
took keen spiritual perception for Moses to see in these downtrodden 
Hebrews the chosen people of God. 

By faith, Moses chose to endure ill-treatment with the children 
of Israel rather than "for a brief time to enjoy sin's pleasure. " He 
voluntarily took the path of suffering and self-denial. He faced squarely 
the test of worldly pleasure. He knew that the privileges and advantages 
which were attached to his high rank and political position were not sin- 
ful in themselves, but he had seen the path of duty clearly, and for him 
to turn aside from it would have been sin. 

Furthermore, Moses realized that the allurement of this world 
would not last. If he enjoyed the world's pleasures, it would be but 
for a season. In this he shows us something of his remarkable under- 
standing of human nature and the true character of sin. Had he suc- 
cumbed to the temptation of worldly preferment, he would have been like 
many of us today who prefer the luxury of our affluent society to the 
hardships of living for Christ. George Romney (1734-1802), the famous 
British painter, was one of these. On one occasion he heard Sir Joshua 
Reynolds say that marriage spoiled an artist. Romney deserted his 


wife and family and went to London to make a name for himself. To- 
ward the end of his life, broken in health and dying, he returned to the 
wife he had forsaken so many years before. It is to her credit that she 
took him in and cared for him until his death. In a poem charged with 
pathos, Tennyson depicts Romney's wife as she tries to comfort him on 
his death-bed. 

"Take comfort, you have won a painter's fame!" 

And from the bitter depths of his soul Romney replies: 

"The best in me that sees the worst in me, and groans 
to see it, finds not comfort there. " 

Like many before and since, Romney sacrified everything for the sake 
of this world's applause. He gambled and lost. 

Dr. Paul Carlson had a well-paying surgical practice in suburban 
Los Angeles. He and his family were happy, and were busy working 
for the Lord in their church. They seemed to have everything going for 
them. However, in the early 1960's Paul Carlson gave up everything to 
follow the leading of the Lord and serve as a medical missionary at 
Wasolo in the Congo. A communist-inspired rebellion shook the Congo 
and, with some other missionaries, Paul Carlson was killed. He faced 
the test of affluence and position in Los Angeles, and chose to obey the 
Master and go to the Congo. His obedience and dedication is the sub - 
ject of Monganga Paul , a biography which has been used of the Lord to 
challenge other Christian young people for missionary service. 

Like Moses, Paul Carlson had his eyes on the eternal. Unlike 
George Romney, Moses put principle before personal preference, saw 
things in their correct perspective, and made a decision to suffer hard- 
ship with the people of God rather than to enjoy the transient pleasures 
of sin. He considered the stigma that rests on God's Anointed greater 
wealth than the treasures of Egypt, for his eyes were fixed upon the com- 
ing day of reward. He weighed the issues of eternity in his mind and 
decided that the temporal wealth of Egypt was of far less value to him 
than the "reproach of the Messiah. " Moses, like Paul many years later, 
and Dr. Carlson in our own day, considered that what things were gain 
to him, these he counted loss for Christ. 

In verses 24-26 the writer gives us a very clear picture of tempt- 
ation. Temptation can only come to a believer through three channels. 
These channels are (1) the lust of the flesh- - what I want to do , (2) the 
lust of the eyes -- what I want to have , and (3) the pride of life- -what I 
want to be. 5 


When Moses chose to endure ill-treatment with the people of God, 
he faced and overcame the "lusts of the flesh"- -what he wanted to do. 
He did this with the clear realization that he was choosing the eternal 
rather than the temporal and committing himself to the path of duty rather 
than to all the pleasures which may have been his in the palace of the 

Secondly, when Moses reckoned the reproach of the Messiah a 
greater wealth than the treasures of Egypt, he overcame "the lust of the 
eyes "--what he wanted to have. Archaeologists have given us some idea 
of the wealth and treasure of Egypt. Moses was perfectly conscious of 
what he was doing. He was turning his back on the "Fort Knox" of his 
day, and spurning all the influence and power which money could have 
obtained for him. 

Lastly, his faith and foresight helped him to set his mind upon 
future rewards and rise above any personal desires which he may have 
had for his own temporal advancement. In so doing he overcame the 
"pride of life"- -what he wanted to be. 

What reason is given for these actions? The inspired writer at- 
tributes it solely to faith. By faith, Moses could see that the temporal 
things were going to pass away and that only that which was eternal would 
last. He overcame the temptation of selfish ambition, worldly pleasure 
and carnal possession because he did everything in life with a view to 
receiving God's approval. 

We might imagine that having made such a great renunciation and 
having set for posterity such a noble example, God would have blessed 
Moses with an abundance of material possessions. We might have ex- 
pected that, like Solomon, who asked for himself a wise and an under- 
standing heart instead of riches and honor and power, Moses would 
have been given the very things which he renounced. However, what 
we desire is not always what God gives us. We frequently expect to 
be given things by God and then wonder why they never come. The key 
to the solution of this enigma is found in verse 27. 

The Endurance of Faith 

Having made his great renunciation, Moses is conscious of pos- 
sessing a greater wealth and honor in the reproach which he has taken 
upon himself than could ever be his if he possessed all the treasures of 
Egypt. He enjoys in his own soul the sense of God's approval, and looks 
forward with anticipation to achieving the deliverance of his people from 
bondage in Egypt. *' 

Going to a place where they are working on one of the storage 
cities, he sees one of them being ill-treated by an Egyptian. He 


immediately strikes the Egyptian, and when he finds that he killed him, 
he hastily buries the body in the sand. Unfortunately, his brethren do 
not understand that he has recently embraced their cause. Stephen says, 
"Moses supposed that his brethren understood that God was giving them 
deliverance by his hand, but they did not understand. "^ 

On the following day he again comes to his people and sees two 
of them quarreling. In endeavoring to reconcile them, he receives the 
crushing retort • "Who made you a ruler and a judge over us? Do you 
want to kill me as you killed the Egyptian yesterday?" 1 " Moses realizes 
that his action is known. As soon as Pharaoh finds out about it, he 
authorizes the arrest of Moses. u To escape execution, Moses flees 
the country and goes into the land of Midian. 

It is at this juncture that we are faced with a problem. The 
writer to the Hebrews says, "By faith Moses, because he was not afraid 
of the wrath of the king, abandoned Egypt" (v. 27), whereas in the book 
of Exodus, and in Stephen's recounting of the history of his people (Acts 
7), the flight of Moses into Midian is attributed to fear. 

To try and escape the difficulty some have imagined that the "for- 
saking" of Egypt (v. 27) refers to the decision of Moses to renounce his 
title and position as the son of Pharaoh's daughter mentioned in verse 24. 
If this is the case, then we have an unwarranted repetition of the infor- 
mation contained in verse 24 --information which is elaborated on in 
verses 25 and 26. This explanation, while giving due credit to the tense 
and meaning of the verb, is most unlikely. We have before us a highly 
selective biographical sketch, and it is improbable that the Holy Spirit 
would waste words on needless repetition. 

Another explanation interprets verse 24 as referring to the Exodus. 
Advocates of this view hold that the flight of Moses from Egypt into 
Midian is attributed to fear, and therefore the event recorded in this 
verse must refer to the Exodus itself. This theory overlooks the fact 
that the verb "he abandoned" is in the singular, whereas, if this referred 
to the Exodus when Moses left Egypt with the children of Israel we would 
expect to read "they forsook" Egypt. Secondly, if verse 27 refers to 
the Exodus, then we have this event referred to twice (w. 27,29), and 
the first reference is out of chronological order, for it preceeds the 
observance of the Passover (v. 28). Lastly, according to Exodus 12:31, 
Moses finally left Egypt at the command of the Pharaoh, and, therefore, 
the statement about not fearing the wrath of the king would be irrelevant. 

Others link this departure of Moses from Egypt with the flight 
into Midian recorded in Exodus 2:14-15. In favor of this interpretation 
is the fact that it fits into the chronological sequence presented in the 
narrative. The apparent discrepancy is explained by the different pur- 
poses of the books in question. The book of Exodus records the human 


side of the life of Moses. This is the aspect presented by Stephen in 
Acts 7. The book of Hebrews stresses the fact of faith. When Moses 
killed the Egyptian it was an act of the flesh. When he learned that a 
knowledge of his action had become widespread, he feared for his life. 
This was only natural. A careful reading of the record will indicate, 
however, that a period of time intervened before the news came to the 
ears of the king. During this period of time, Moses undoubtedly re- 
pented of his action and again placed his confidence in God. Faith was 
once more the controlling principle of his life. Moses had been afraid, 
but to the writer of Hebrews that was not the reason why he left Egypt. 
His fear had given place to faith. He had the spiritual insight to see 
that he had failed. His action in killing the Egyptian had sprung from 
uncontrolled passion. He had to learn that spiritual ends are never 
achieved by carnal means. Now, with cooler judgment, he has the in- 
sight to see that God's hour had not yet struck. He realizes that both 
the sons of Israel and he are unprepared for what lies ahead. He there- 
fore resolutely turns his back on the course of action he has begun to 
take and begins to learn the lesson of disappointed hopes. And during 
forty years in the desert of Midian he learns to persevere as seeing 
Him who is invisible (v. 27). 

The discipline of disappointed hopes faces each one of us. We 
must all face times in life when the going gets rough and others turn 
against us, when we face frustration and are thwarted in our plans, when 
we are maligned and misunderstood by those who are nearest and dear- 
est to us, and see our most cherished dreams reduced to ashes. How 
often have missionaries, pastors and Christian workers felt like this? 
In times like these we should follow the example of Moses who, "per- 
severed as though he were catching sight of the Invisible." This is 
what sustained Moses throughout the forty years when he was shepherding 
the flock of Jethro the Midianite. He faced the inevitable delays and 
became resigned to the thwarting of his plans, but he also knew that in 
time God would work out His own plan for His own glory. 

At the end of forty years Moses has learned so well the lesson 
of his own insignificance that when God finally comes to him and com- 
missions him to return to Egypt to deliver His people, Moses does 
not feel capable of fulfilling the assignment. Previously we read of him 
as being "mighty in words and deeds. " 22 Now, however, he is con- 
scious of his own inadequacy and is reluctant to respond to the call of 
God. He states that he lacks prestige, ^3 has no message, is with- 
out authority, and can no longer hold his own in debate. Whereas 
previously Moses was assured of his own ability, now he manifests a 
genuine sense of humility and acknowledges his insufficiency. He is in 
the right frame of mind for God to be able to use him. 

Most reluctantly Moses returns to Egypt to face Amenhotep II 
(ca. 1450-1423 B.C.), the "Pharaoh of the Exodus." 27 


The Perception of Faith 

Moses is now a yielded instrument in God's hands, and God uses 
him to bring judgment upon the Egyptians by means of a series of 
plagues. These plagues are not mentioned by the writer of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, but the tenth one is alluded to in verse 28. The tenth 
plague causes the death of the firstborn in every Egyptian family. Signi- 
ficantly, the eldest son of Amenhotep II did not succeed him on the throne 
of Egypt. He died, and in 1423 B. C. his younger brother, Thutmose IV, 
became the new Pharaoh. 

Among the children of Israel, however, the firstborn are not 
killed because by faith Moses has instituted the Passover and the sprin- 
kling of blood (v. 28). As each Israelite father kills the Passover lamb, 
he sprinkles the blood on the door-posts and lintel of his home. By doing 
this he insures the safety of his firstborn. " The Egyptians, however, 
are either ignorant of this provision or do not avail themselves of it, 
and throughout Egypt the firstborn in each household dies. 

When God ordained that a lamb would be slaughtered and eaten 
on the Passover evening and that its blood should be sprinkled upon the 
lintel and doorposts of the house, He did so for a purpose. The Passover 
lamb was to serve as an illustration of another Lamb who would give 
His life for the sins of the whole world. To those who, by faith, shelter 
under the provision of the blood of God's Lamb, the Lord Jesus Christ, 
there is salvation from sin and protection from the judgment which 
justly falls upon those who neglect His provision. 

On that fateful evening something causes Amenhotep II to awaken 
from his sleep. When he finds that his son is dead he immediately sends 
a message to Moses commanding him to leave the country. The mes- 
senger finds Moses and the children of Israel fully prepared to leave 
Egypt, and they immediately begin their journey toward the Promised 


By morning Pharaoh has had the opportunity of reviewing the 
situation. He experiences a change of heart and commands his army 
to pursue after the Israelites. The army overtakes the Israelites before 
they can find a passage across the Red Sea. The Israelites are trapped, 
and the Egyptians prepare themselves for an easy slaughter. Recognizing 
their predicament the children of Israel cry out to Moses. Moses stab- 
ilizes the wavering masses and tells them to "stand still and see the 
salvation of God. " He then goes on to tell them that the Egyptians will 
never oppress them again, for the Lord will fight for them. 2 By faith 
they pass through the Red Sea as though on dry land (v. 29); but the 
Egyptians, when they try to follow, are drowned. 


The faith which Moses saw in his own parents became a reality 
in his own life, and now his confidence in God is communicated to the 
Israelites. "By faith they passed through the Red Sea. " This is always 
God's way. He works through individuals who are committed to Him. 
While we rejoice when numbers are brought to a saving knowledge of 
Jesus Christ through some evangelistic crusade, the fact remains that 
the most important instrument in all Christian work is the example of 
the individual believer. 

Only a few decades ago, Africa was looked upon as the "dark 
Continent." The famous missionary-explorer, David Livingstone, had 
not been heard from for many months, and people all over the world 
were becoming anxious for news. Henry Stanley a reporter for the 
New York Herald , set out to look for Livingstone and finally found him 
at Ujiji in Central Africa. After spending four months with the doctor, 
Stanley wrote: "I went to Africa as prejudiced as the biggest atheist in 
London. But there came a long time for reflection. I saw this solitary 
old man there and asked myself, 'How on earth does he stay here? 
What is it that inspires him?' For months I found myself wondering at 
the old man carrying out all that was said in the Bible, . . . But little 
by little my sympathy was aroused. Seeing his piety, his gentleness, 
his zeal, his earnestness, I was converted by him although he had not 
tried to do it! It was not Livingstone's preaching which converted me. 
It was Livingstone's living! "^ His life was the means God used to bring 
Stanley to faith in Christ. 

Some years ago, while I was in business, I had the pleasure of 
having as a close friend a man whose testimony and example had been 
the means of bringing many of his colleagues to personal faith in Jesus 
Christ. An accountant and auditor, this man so lived before others that 
they marveled at his consistent example and godly life. As time went 
by, more and more responsibility was given him and his superiors found 
that he could be trusted implicitly. His winsome witness caused many 
to talk to him about his "religion, " and he had the joy of sharing his 
faith in Christ with them. 

As we survey this selective history of the life of Moses we learn 
several lessons which are of great importance to us in the life of faith. 

The first lesson we learn is that we must put duty to God before 
worldly possession or selfish ambition. We should not allow personal 
inclinations, family pressures, or selfish motives to sidetrack us from 
the path of duty when once this has been presented clearly to us. God 
frequently calls people into His service, but for one reason or another 
they demur and delay. A promising career, and affectionate attachment 
to someone who may not fit into the Lord's plans, or an unprecedented 
business opportunity may turn them from the path of duty. In later life, 


like Romney, many are stricken with remorse over their wasted years. 
Having heard the call to missionary service in their late teens or early 
twenties, they now try to salve their consciences by giving large sums 
of money to Christian work. These gifts are greatly appreciated by the 
receivers, but as far as God is concerned they can scarcely make up 
for a life of service. Moses saw these issues in their correct perspective. 
He realized that it was a matter of the temporal versus the eternal, and 
he chose to follow the path of God's directing regardless of what it might 
cost him personally. 

Secondly, the life of Moses teaches us the need for patience and 
persistence in the face of interminable delays. This is graphically il - 
lustrated in the forty years Moses spent in the desert looking after his 
father-in-law's sheep. It is easy to give up and become despondent when 
our most cherished hopes crumble to ashes or are dashed in pieces at 
our feet. The discipline of delay is a common experience in the lives 
of Christians. Abraham learned patience as he waited twenty -five long 
years for Isaac, the child of promise, to be born. Joseph, the cruel 
victim of circumstances, endured the hardships of an Egyptian jail, but 
came out of it to become Prime Minister of Egypt. David knew the dis- 
ciplining hand of God upon him when, having been anointed King over 
Israel, he was persecuted and harassed by Saul, and forced to live as 
an outcast and an exile. Elijah knew of the discipline of disappointed 
hopes too, for having delivered an ultimatum to an apostate king, and 
being ready to lead the people back to faith in the true God, he was 
told to go and hide by an obscure stream. Paul, only recently con- 
verted from Judaism to Christianity wanted to preach Christ, but instead 
he was sent into the barren wastes of Arabia to be taught by the Holy 
Spirit. These were all tempered by delay, overcame their disappoint - 
ment as they waited upon the Lord, and ultimately triumphed as they 
walked in the center of His will. In the conflict between the visible and 
the invisible, Moses kept his eyes on God and was prepared for fuller 
service as a result. 

Closely associated with the need for perseverance is the third 
lesson from the life of Moses, the need for spiritual perception. When 
Moses returned to Egypt he had learned to walk by faith, not by sight. 
He recognized that God's ways are not our ways. He saw clearly the 
distinction between the spiritual and the material, and he chose the 
former. This is hard to do in our day unless we too walk by faith. 
As we look about us we cannot help but see the stress which is being 
placed upon organization and administration, and gadgets and gimmicks 
as the means for achieving success. We have come to rely upon the 
resourcefulness of man rather than the power of God. The techniques 
of motivation research are being used to raise money for our institutions, 
the subtle manipulations of misapplied psychology are used by manage- 
ment, and the emphasis in our churches is placed upon numerical strength 


rather than spiritual power. Moses saw through the veneer of material- 
ism and placed his confidence entirely in the Lord. He knew what it 
was to see God work in unexpected and irresistible ways. He saw the 
might of Pharaoh crushed and a nation of slaves emancipated. 

The key to the success of Moses is found in one word, faith. It 
is repeated throughout the narrative. "By faith Moses, . . . By faith 
Moses .... By faith Moses, ..." (v. 24, 27, 28), is the recurring 
theme of this passage. By faith he chose, by faith he endured, and by 
faith he overcame. Only as we, too, walk by faith will we be able to 
see God work through us. The weapons of warfare are not carnal, but 
mighty before God for the overthrowing of strongholds. 



Arthur S. Peake, Heroes and Marytrs of Faith (London: Hodder 

and Stoughton, n. d. ), p. 101. 

2 For a concise discussion of the Hyku Khoswet, "rulers of foreign 

countries, " or "Hyksos" see Unger's Bible Dictionary (Chicago: Moody 

Press, 1960), pp. 508-09. 

^Exodus 1:7-9. Cf. John Rea, "The Time of the Oppression and 

the Exodus," Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society , III, No. 3 

(July, 1960), 59-63. 

4 Exodus 1:9-11. 

5 Exodus 1:13-14. 

6 Exodus 1:15-19. 

Exodus 1:22. 

8 Exodus 2:2. 

9 Exodus 2:7, 9. Cf. Charles Marston's The Bible Comes Alive 

(Joplin, Mo. : The College Press, reprint), pp. 40ff. 

l^In Biblical times children were only weaned after three years. 

Cf. Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. , 

1961), p. 43; Unger's Bible Dictionary, p. 193. 

^Deuteronomy 6:6-7. 

12Acts 7:22. 

13 Acts 7:23. 

14 Philippians 3:7. 

15 Cf. I John 2:15-17. 

16 I Kings 3:10-13. 

17 Acts 7:23. 

18 Acts 7:25; cf. Exodus 2:11-12. 

19 Exodus 2:13-14; Acts 7:26-28. 

20 it .. m n 

Exodus 2:15. The mention of Pharaoh in Exodus and king , 

in Hebrews 11:27 would tend to support the idea that Hatshepsut was dead 
and could no longer offer protection to her adopted son. Those who dis- 
agree with this theory point out that Hatshepsut reigned as a king and 
that the statues which she had made of herself portray her as a man 
with a beard and are devoid of all feminine features. It seems prefer- 
able to identify this Pharaoh with Thutmose III (ca. 1483-1450 B.C.), 
the "Pharaoh of the Oppression. " 

^Exodus 2:15. "Now when Pharaoh heard this ..." indicates 
that there was a certain lapse of time before the news reached him. 
Moses may have hoped that the body would not be discovered, or that 
the Egyptians would not hear of the incident from one of the slaves. In 
any event, during the interval, he repented of his action and again placed 
his confidence in the Lord his God. 


Acts 7:22. 

23 Exodus 3:11. 


^Exodus 3:13. 

5 Exodus 4:1. 

26 Exodus 4:10. 

The Exodus took place in 1447 B. C. This date is supported by 

both Biblical and extra-Biblical evidence. For a good discussion of the 
varying views see Gleason L. Archer's Survey of Old Testament Intro- 
duction (Chicago: Moody Press, 1964), pp. 212-23. 

2 ^Thutmose IV (ca. 1423-1410 B. C. ) was not heir to the throne. 
He, however, is reported to have had a dream while he was still a prince. 
His "Dream Stela" records how the god Horus appeared to him and 
promised if he would remove the sand from the Sphinx he would one day 
become king. It is quite obvious that if Thutmose IV had been the old - 
est son of his father there would be no purpose in a divine promise 
that he would one day become king. Cf. Ancient Near Eastern Texts . 
Edited by James B. Pritchard (2nd ed. ; Princeton: Princeton University 
Press, J955), p. 449. 

9 Exodus 12:22-23. 
Exodus 12:29-31. The fact that Pharaoh and his servants and 
his people arose during the night to check on the well-being of their 
firstborn indicates that they must have had some knowledge of what was 

31 Exodus 12:11-12, 31. 

32 Exodus 14:13-14. 

33 m 

Henry M. Stanley, How I Found Livingstone ... in Central 

Africa" (London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Low and Searle, 1872), p. 

434. (Italics added.) Stanley discusses Livingstone's character at 

length on pages 428-74. 

34 II Corinthians 10:4. 


Professor of Practical Theology 
Talbot Theological Seminary 

Paul declared the goal for the ministry to be "that we may present 
every man complete in Christ" (Colossians 1:28). Colossians 2:10 adds 
"and in Him you have been made complete. " The thought is that by 
appropriating Christ's work on our behalf we can experience the fulness 
of God, that is, enter into a process by which God can accomplish every 
goal that He has for man. The word translated "complete" in Colossians 
2:10 means literally "full." In ancient Greece it was used to describe 
a ship that was loaded with cargo, had a full crew and was ready to 

It is my conviction that many seminary graduates have sailed 
into the pastorate with an inadequate grasp of the truth that Christ is 
the complete answer to man's needs. 

The problem in Colossae was evidently similar to that which is 
faced today. There is a trend toward emphasis on the "Jesus experience" 
thus minimizing the importance of the encounter with the historical Christ 
who died, rose, ascended and by His Spirit wants to work in our lives 

One commentator described the heresy faced by the Colossians 
as follows: ". . . Christ was absolutely dethroned, ... a shadowy 
fantastic transcendental idealism, and a mystical approach to God 
through angels and aeons, were substituted for the very Man, the real 
Cross, the actual death, the true redemption which consists in forgive- 
ness of sin. But this theoretical error was accompanied by, and at 
root was the cause of, a grave practical mistake- -a mistake pervading 
the entire life of those who received it. A series of minute observances, 
of petty devotions, of fragmentary rules and little ascetic efforts --the 
small ritualisms and smaller practical code of Judaizing superstition- -were 
exchanged for the breadth and strength of Christian's supernatural life, 
begun in Baptism--for a real union with the Risen and Ascended Lord. "1 

The material in this article was originally presented at Grace Theological 
Seminary as comprising the Louis S. Bauman Memorial Lectures, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1973. Three other messages will follow. 



This explains the exhortation, "See to it that no one take you 
captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the elemen- 
tary principles of the world, rather than according to Christ" (Colossians 

In the challenge to this church to find its sufficiency in Christ, 
we discover that which should be our emphasis. If we are to minister 
effectively to our people we must be impressed that Christ is the means 
of fulness in at least three areas. 

I. In Christ is fulness of knowledge. 

Colossians 2:3 declares "In whom are hidden all the treasures 
of wisdom and knowledge. " 

He has the answers to the problems of the physical universe. 
"For in Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, 
visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or author- 
ities --all things have been created through Him and for Him. And He 
is before all things, and in Him all things hold together" (Colossians 
1:16,17). He was the creator, which means that He was the God who 
"in the beginning . . . created the heavens and the earth (Genesis 1:1). 
He also is the sustainer of the universe. The idea of "hold together" 
is literally that it "coheres into a system. " Then the ultimate purpose 
of it all is focussed on Him because it was "created . . . for Him" 
(v. 16). 

In this existential age there might be a danger of feeling apolo- 
getic about presenting such dogmatic truth. Sometimes it helps to hear 
the answers others are giving. 

Dr. Harold Painter, Philosophy Professor at Orange Coast College 
speaking at the University of California at Irvine, October, 1970 declared: 

All of us are pretty well hung up on the idea that this 
world was brought into being in time and space --that a 
Creator, therefore, is guiding its destiny- -that the world 
is supported and sustained by a creator .... 

Western man is unsure and uncertain. We are caught 
in confusion and we are not sure what the confusion is. 

He (Darwin) said the species was not created in fixed 
form but produced through an interplay of mutation and 
environment- -that it came about in an erratic manner-- 
randomness--that there is no indication that anyone guided 
or directed it- -survival of the fittest. And that the human 


race may disappear like the dinosaurs, or it may not, 
or it may change. 

Are you beginning to feel kind of empty? You do not 
need the God -creator preserver theory to explain life. 
You cannot make God an object of public scrutiny. The 
basic thing you can identify that is going on in this world 
is change and until you find security in change there is 
going to be a lot of uncertainty. 

Now there is a solid foundation on which to build! Sam Eisensten, 
a professor at Los Angeles State College, attempting to arouse teachers 
to a new dedication to their task prior to the 1971 school year observed 
that "teacher and student in both public and private schools need to do 
away with the rhetoric of 'generation gap' and multimedia cliche and 
realize that we live in an era of broken faith and broken icons, one of 
transition between unworkable strategies and values and a chaotic and 
terrifying future. "3 According to him, education is in a "transition be- 
tween unworkable strategies and values and a chaotic and terrifying 
future!" The current uncertainty and search for direction on the part 
of educational leaders should be a challenge to the preacher and teacher 
to bear an impact on society by presenting Christ as the answer. This 
is not always the case even in the so called "Christian college" however. 

"For Christian education, therefore, to adopt as its unifying 
principle Christ and the Bible means nothing short of the recognition 
that all truth is God's truth. It is no accident that St. Paul, setting 
before the Philippian church a charter for Christian thought, wrote: 
'Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true . . . think on these 
things.' He knew that Christian truth embraces all truth, and that no- 
thing true is outside the scope of Christianity. 

For example, Professor Gordon Clark of Butler University speaks 
of the Christian college, where such good things as 'giving out tracts . . . 
holding fervent prayer meetings, going out on gospel teams, opening 
classes with prayer' are the accepted practice; 'yet the actual instruction 
is no more Christian than in a respectable secular school . . . The 
program is merely a pagan education with a chocolate covering of Chris- 
tianity. And the pill, not the coating, works . . . the students are 
deceived into thinking that they have received a Christian education when 
as a matter of fact their training has been neither Christian nor an edu- 
cation. Christianity, far from being a Bible -department religion, has 
a right to control the instruction in all departments. The general principles 
of Scripture apply to all subjects, and in some subjects the Scriptures 
supply rather detailed principles, so that every course of instruction 
is altered by a conscious adoption of Christian principles.'" 4 


To bear an impact on this society requires that each of us 
recognize that in Christ "are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and 
knowledge" (2:3). We must proclaim Him as the key to understanding 
the origin and purpose of the universe. 

II. In Christ is fulness of righteousness. 

Not only must we see Christ as the fulness of knowledge but 
the answer to fulness of righteousness. Man attempts to get rid of the 
guilt feeling. God rids us of guilt and attacks the cause of it, sin. 

This is emphasized in several verses in Colossians. 

"For He delivered us from the domain of darkness, and 
transferred us to the kingdom of His well -beloved Son, 
in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins " 

"For it was the Father's good pleasure for all the ful- 
ness of grace to dwell in Him, . . . yet He has now 
reconciled you in His fleshly body through death, in order 
to present you before Him holy and blameless and beyond 
reproach" (1:19,22). 

"And when you were dead in your transgressions and the 
uncircumcision of your flesh, He made you alive together 
with Him, having forgiven us all our transgressions, 
having cancelled out the certificate of debt consisting of 
decrees against us and which was hostile to us; and He 
has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross. 
When He had disarmed the rulers and authorities, He 
made a public display of them, having triumphed over 
them through Him" (2:13-15). 

Note that in Christ is "fulness of grace" (1:19). He took care 
of the sin question by dying in our place. According to 2:15 "through 
Him" we triumph over all the foes of the soul. 

We all know what it means to enter into the victory of others. 
If our school team wins a game, we rejoice that "we won!" We did 
not play but we share the victory of the players. So it is with Christ. 
He has invited us to share in the victory of judgment for sin (2:14) and 
the provision of God's righteousness (1:22). 

According to 1:12, 13 this righteousness qualifies us to be in the 
care of the King of Kings. His loving rulership begins the moment we 
accept Christ as Savior. 


I had the privilege of visiting Dachau, the site of one of the in- 
famous Nazi concentration camps. During World War II thousands lost 
their lives there through starvation or other means. In the memorial 
building are pictures of the terrifying life in the camp. The last scene 
portrays the prisoners on the day of deliverance by the allies. The 
transformation of their faces was amazing as they realized they were 
now free! I am sure that for those still living, the memory of that 
moment will never be forgotten. 

The Lord "delivered us from the domain of darkness" (1:13). He 
"transferred us to the kingdom of His well-beloved Son" (1:14). We must 
never lose the joy of that deliverance if we would effectively communicate 
Christ as "the fulness of grace" (1:19). 

III. In Christ is fulness of being. 

The Colossians were chided for "not holding to the Head, from 
whom the entire body, being supplied and held together by the joints and 
ligaments, grows with a growth which is from God" (Colossians 2:19). 

Prior to this it had been explained that "in Him all the fulness 
of deity dwells in bodily form, and in Him you have been made complete, 
. . . (Colossians 2:9, 10a). 

We must be convinced of the grace of Christ but we must also 
recognize that Christ is the means by which we experience the fulness 
of being which God intended for man. Man individually and collectively 
needs to be "supplied" (2:19) by the Head if his complicated mechanism 
is to be "held together" (2:19) and operate in a proper manner. 

Recently I cut down a tree in my yard. While I was using a 
chain saw the chain came off. When I put it back on it was inadvertently 
installed backwards so the dull edge became what was supposed to be 
the cutting edge. I could not figure out for a time what was wrong. 
The saw worked; there was a lot of smoke, but I was making very little 
progress! The chain had to be installed properly in order for the saw 
to accomplish what it was supposed to do. 

We are made by God to work in a certain way. It is only as 
we allow the Head, the one who created us, to put us together in the 
proper manner that we can experience the full life of God and the accom- 
plishment of His purpose for our lives. 

We hear a lot today about church renewal. Robert Girard writing 
on the subject declares "that the church needs more than anything else 
to know Him! To know the Living Son of God. To know the Holy Spirit. 
To know Him personally. To know Him in the power of His resurrection. 


If a church needs renewal, it is not primarily because it lacks 
dynamic leadership, or because it does not have revival meetings or 
Sunday night services anymore. The church needs renewal only because 
it does not know Him anymore! It has lost or nearly lost personal 
fellowship with Him. It has forgotten how to worship Him genuinely, 
as the Person He is. It has lost its capacity to enjoy Him, thank Him, 
praise Him, pray to Him, fellowship with Him, depend on Him, draw 
all it needs from Him, and have a love relationship with Him . . . 

No church which fails to see Christ as a living, real Person, 
coming to us as a Personal Spirit will ever experience genuine spiritual 
and institutional renewal. Without the personal power of the Personal 
Jesus, there is no way to experience in a real sense the New Testament 
idea that in Christ "old things are passed away ... all things are be- 
come new. " 

To try to change the church in structure alone, hoping to bring 
renewal to it, without bringing its people to faith in the Personal Jesus, 
is as unthinkable as hoping that by removing the wagon tongue and add - 
ing pneumatic tires the buckboard will suddenly become self-propelled. 

Making Christ personal is the key to renewal. Whatever it takes 
to release His resurrection life in people and through people is what it 
will take to bring renewal. 



1. F. C. Cook, editor, The Holy Bible Commentary, Colossians , 
N. T. , Vol. Ill (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1890), p. 

2. L. A. Times , October, 1970. 

3. L. A. Times , September 19, 1971. 

4. Frank E. Gaebelein, The Pattern of God's Truth (Oxford Press, 
1954), p. 17, 20, 21. 

5. Robert Girard, Brethren, Hang Loose (Zondervan, 1972), pp. 211- 


THE NATIONS. By Walter K. Price. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 

160 pp. $4.95. 

The Olivet Discourse as recorded in Matthew 24-25 is seen as 
Christ's inclusive portrayal of the future concerning Israel, the Church, 
and the Gentile nations. Price holds that 24:4-34 deals specifically with 
the future of Israel, 24:35-25:30 portrays the Church in its twofold duty 
of watching and occupying until Christ's return, while 25:31-46 pictures 
Christ's judgment of the Gentile nations concerning their treatment of the 
Jews. This volume does not offer a verse-by-verse exposition of the 
Olivet Discourse but uses it rather as the key for the interpretation of 
the entire end-time prophetic picture. The author draws in various 
other prophetic portions, both Old and New Testament, to give a com- 
prehensive over-view of the Biblical teaching concerning Israel, the 
Church, and the nations from a premillennial viewpoint. 

Holding that the present church age is a parenthesis in God's 
prophetic program for Israel, he points out that the present suspension 
of the program for national Israel is connected with two interim mysteries: 
Israel presently set aside in unbelief, and the formation of the Church 
at the Rapture, which is imminent, the prophetic program with Israel 
will be resumed. At first restored Israel will be protected by the 
Antichrist, but during the middle of his career (Daniel's seventieth 
week) he will terminate the resumed Jewish temple worship and seek 
to exterminate the Jews. The point of the judgment of the living nations 
at Christ's return will be their treatment of His persecuted Jewish 
brethren during the Great Tribulation. 

The author holds that a spiritualizing of the promises to Israel 
cannot do justice to the complex fabric of the prophetic Word. Only 
a literal-futuristic interpretation can do justice to the complete picture. 
This volume offers a stimulating and rewarding study of eschatology 
from the premillennial viewpoint. 

There is a detailed subject index and a Scripture index but no 
bibliography. Suggestions for further study in this important and complex 
area of Biblical teaching would have added to the value of the volume. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 





Book House, Grand Rapids, n.d. 162 pp. $2.45, paper. 

The aggressiveness of the Jehovah's Witnesses is well known but 
most evangelical believers are insufficiently acquainted with their teach- 
ings in order effectively to refute their claims on the basis of the Bible. 
Here is an incisive, Bible -based analysis of the basic teaching of this 
heretical cult. The author, a layman from Vancouver, B. C. , is not 
only thoroughly acquainted with the history and teachings of the JW's, 
but knows how effectively to refute them on the basis of Scripture. He 
examines the various passages to which the JW's appeal to support their 
teachings, shows the distortions involved in their interpretations, and 
marshals the clear teaching of the Bible in refutation. 

The contents of this volume are well organized, easily grasped, 
and highly instructive. A scriptural index of verses discussed adds to 
its usefulness. 

Highly informative is the author's treatment of the date-setting 
features of this movement. He points out that "the early Russellites 
firmly believed that Christ came invisibly in 1874. At the end of forty 
years (1914), this would be verified by many visible events" (p. 85). 
When Russell's prediction of a Paradise Earth for 1914 failed, varied 
efforts to cover up were resorted to, including the changing of the 
reading in Russell's books. He points out that "all JW's are now look- 
ing forward with great anticipation to a brand new date which has been 
given them by the Society. This new date is 1975!" (p. 86). 

Here is a valuable tool for becoming better informed about the 
JW's and how to counter their false teachings. Warmly recommended. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 

Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 


Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1971. $3.95, paper. 

Mr. Hindson presented the thesis, "The Philistines and the Old 
Testament, " for his Master of Theology degree in May of 1970 at Grace 
Theological Seminary. This book is nearly a word for word copy of 
that, except for a few editorial corrections, omission of the last chapter 
"Philistines in Biblical Eschatology, " several changes in illustrations, 
and an index that has been included. Nowhere in the book does the author 


mention that this was his master's thesis, although he does express 
gratitude to two Grace professors in the preface. 

Since Macalister's The Philistines: Their History and Civilization 
appeared in 1913, there have been many archaeological discoveries and 
numerous articles about the Philistines, but little has been done to 
compile all that into book form. Hindson has made a significant con- 
tribution in writing a well -documented critical study of the background, 
culture, and religion of the Philistines, as seen in archaeology and the 
Bible. Throughout the book there is a careful integration with Scripture; 
the study of Hebrew and Philistine contacts gives some interesting in- 
sights to Old Testament history. Many good maps and illustrations aid 
the reader's understanding. 

Mr. Hindson begins with the assumption that the Philistines were 
of Aegean origin and that they moved with the Sea peoples. In the 
course of the first three chapters, he gives much evidence to substantiate 
this. The problem of early references to the Philistines in the Pentateuch 
is answered by early settlements of Sea peoples in Patriarchal times 
(pp. 16ff. , 66, 94ff. ). Although referring to Michael C. Astour's 
Hellenosemitica: An Ethnic and Cultural Study in West Semitic Impact 
on Mycenaean Greece (pp. 37, 44. 45, 95, 96), Hindson does not men- 
tion the possibility that Astour exposes in his first chapter, that some 
of the Sea peoples were originally of Semitic background (Astour, pp. 109, 
110). This would be an interesting solution to the early references to 

Numerous typographical errors could be cited and may slightly 
annoy the reader, but they can be overlooked in favor of the valuable 

D. Brent Sandy 
Grace College 

Harold S. Slusher. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1970. 
548 pp. $7.95. 

This is the first textbook prepared for high school use by a 
special biology textbook committee of the Creation Research Society. 
Written by a team of qualified specialists in the biological sciences, it 
is unique among biology texts in its presentation and interpretation of 
the actual facts of the science of biology from a creationist viewpoint. 

The subject matter is divided into ten units covering such tradi- 


tional topics as the scientist, the scientific method and its application; 
the chemical basis for the study of biology; the nature of living things, 
genetics, and embryology; the classification of organisms; small plants 
and animals including fungi, viruses, bacteria, algae, and protozoa; 
animals with and without backbones; the biology of man with emphasis 
on his anatomy and physiology; plants with and without conducting systems; 
ecology and conservation. 

An outstanding addition is the incorporation of a unit of five 
chapters on the theories of biologic change which effectively punctures 
the balloon of organic evolution. Following a discussion of the origin 
of the theory of evolution, arguments are given to refute the supposed 
evidences for evolution from historic geology (fossils), and from anatom- 
ical, embryological and biochemical similarities of organisms. Also 
included are chapters on the existence of early man, limited variation 
versus unlimited change, and the serious problems facing evolutionists 
as those of mechanism, of establishing new traits, of the origin of life, 
of structural evolution, and of the uniqueness of man. The weakness of 
using vestigial organs as evolutionary evidence is clearly emphasized as 
is the absence of fossil or living transitions between invertebrates and 

The text was written to counter the monopolistic and dogmatic 
presentation of the atheistic theory of evolution in the nation's high 
schools. It is the opinion of this reviewer that the authors and the 
Creation Research Society have achieved this goal with a balanced pres- 
entation reasonably free of bias. Perhaps it should be noted that both 
evolutionists and creationists do not disagree concerning verifiable 
scientific laws and facts. Rather, it is in the area of philosophical 
assumptions, conclusions and predictions regarding the subject of origins 
where they disagree, and this is not true science. Although it is read- 
ily understood that the Creation Research Society in its desire to have 
its text considered and accepted by state school boards throughout the 
United States has tried to avoid any religious implications, it is never- 
theless the sincere opinion of this reviewer that it would have been far 
more honoring to God if the "Creator" had been clearly identified as the 
God of the Bible and if pertinent Scripture passages (especially chapter 
one of Genesis) were cited where appropriate. 

From a technical standpoint, the majority of the illustrations are 
excellent, but many of the photographic reproductions are small and 
indistinct. It is hoped that in future editions this minor defect will be 
remedied and that the textbook committee will utilize color photographs 
which would greatly enhance the clarity and appeal of the text. It would 
also be a useful addition if a glossary of biological terms was incorpo- 


rated in future editions. Nevertheless, the Creation Research Society 
is to be heartily commended for this noble effort to bring order out of 
complexity within the science of biology, especially with regard to the 
perennial problem of special creation versus evolution. 

Raymond L. Scott 
Columbia Bible College 


B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, 1972. 128 pp. $1. 50,paper. 

John R. W. Stott, rector of All Souls Church (Anglican) in 
London, England, and Honorary Chaplain to the Queen of England, has 
distinguished himself to American Christians through his preaching 
visits and many books as an outstanding expositor of the Word of God. 
This volume, printed in its first American edition in 1958, now reappears 
to enhance further its author's reputation. 

This is a study of the letters to the seven Asian churches addressed 
in Revelation 2 and 3. In size and content it is reminiscent of similar 
studies by G. Campbell Morgan, E. M. Blaiklock, Donald Grey Barnhouse, 
and William Barclay. Like all these authors, Stott draws appreciatively 
on the research of Sir Wm. Ramsay's, The Letters to the Seven Churches 
of Asia. In addition to awareness of the historical background of these 
letters, Stott subtly demonstrates again and again his knowledge of the 
Greek text and of many correlating Scriptures throughout the Old and New 
Testaments. The result is a book comprehensive in research and treat- 
ment, expert in hermeneutical skill, rich in Biblical doctrine, popular 
in style and soul-searching in application. 

Occasional Anglicanisms ("a tinker's cuss" p. 102) of expression 
and some references to the liturgy and literature of the Anglican Church 
may amuse Grace Journal readers, and the author's post-tribulationism 
colors his interpretation of 3:10, but these faults do not diminish the 
exceptional value of this work. 

Robert F. Ramey 
Grace Theological Seminary 


Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1960. 

A good filing system is essential to efficient living. The ability 


to sort, store and recall many reference items is particularly important 
to a teacher or preacher who needs quick access to many bits of informa- 
tion. The outline and procedure presented in the Baker Filing System 
should be of great help to those who need this kind of assistance. It is 
carefully structured and yet allows the user sufficient freedom and flex- 
ibility for his personal needs. As the title suggests, the system is 
adaptable to either topics or texts. 

This system includes a 2,200 topic list, alphabetically arranged. 
The list of topics is cross-indexed for synonyms, antonyms and related 
topics. The system (all printed and bound in the one volume) provides 
2000 reference spaces, each with 20 blank reference lines, for the list- 
ing of each entry within the topic. Complete directions are offered at 
the beginning of the book. Once these are mastered and the file is set 
up accordingly, the system is fairly simple to use. 

Some might question the wisdom of the time-consuming process 
of writing down the name of every entry in the file. File theorists 
differ on this point. However, in this system, the writing step enables 
the user to cross-reference his books and magazines with the actual 
filed entries. All Grace Journal readers should consider setting up a 
file to make them more efficient in the service of Christ. The Baker 
System is a good one. 

Robert F. Ramey 
Grace Theological Seminary 

SONGS THAT LIFT THE HEART. By George Beverly Shea with Fred Bauer. 
Fleming H. Revell Co., Old Tappan, New Jersey, 1972. 125 pp. $3.95. 

This is a personal story by one of America's best loved Gospel 
singers about the hymns he loves best. He tells of the music education 
that his parents gave him from his earliest days at home. The song 
that later was to become his theme on his national radio broadcast, 
"Singing I Go," was first sung to him by his mother who regularly sang 
the song early in the morning to arouse her household. Although this 
book is not meant to be an autobiography, each succeeding page shares 
with the reader some additional anecdote out of his life involving the 
learning, writing or appreciation of some great hymn. 

This little volume might easily serve as a personalized, abbre- 
viated hymnology. Bev Shea knows many of the authors of the great 
Christian songs either by personal acquaintance or by research, and he 
tells the background stories of their hymns with obvious appreciation. 


The names of famous contemporary Christian musicians and evangelists 
appear regularly throughout the story. It is of special interest to read 
of Shea's part in the world-wide ministry of the Billy Graham team. 

Grace Journal readers will enjoy this refreshing and interesting 
story of old favorites and newer songs as well. This would make a good 
gift for someone who needs the enduring message of "songs that lift the 
heart. " 

Grace Theological Seminary 

Robert F. Ramey 

ALL THE APOSTLES OF THE BIBLE. By Herbert Lockyer. Zondervan 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 278 double column pp. $5.95. 

This is the latest, the 13th, volume from the prolific pen of Dr. 
Lockyer in his famous "all" series of scriptural reference works. In 
this volume he disucsses not only all the original Twelve, Matthias, and 
Paul, but also all those who in the larger sense of the term are speci- 
fically or probably called "apostles" in the New Testament. On the basis 
of Heb.3:l a short section is also devoted to Christ "the Apostle of the 
Apostles. " 

The volume opens with a general discussion dealing with Christ's 
purpose in choosing the Twelve and the privileged preparatory training 
which they received. The major portion of the volume, dealing with 
"the Particular Personalities of all Named Apostles," is based on the 
Biblical material concerning each. The last section of the book is devoted 
to gathering up the legendary deeds and deaths of these individuals. For 
most readers this material, which Lockyer rightly marks as uncertain, 
will be unfamiliar. For good measure several appendixes deal with 
various things "apostolic," Apostolic Symbols, Succession, Fathers, 
Creed, Frauds, etc. These appendixes add to the value of the volume. 
A scriptural index is included. 

Dr. Lockyer is a firm evangelical in his views. He has read 
widely and frequently refers to or quotes from other works. It is to 
be regretted that he does not give the full bibliographical data for the 
sources quoted. At times Dr. Lockyer asserts a view without indicating 
that there are other possible interpretations. In his brief reference to 
"Junias, or Junia" he assumes that the reference is to a man and does 
not even note that it may equally be the name of a woman (p. 200). 
He asserts that Timothy was sent back to Thessalonica from Athens 
"to complete the organization of the church there" (p. 234), but such 
a purpose is not indicated in the Thessalonian epistles. His presenta- 
tion of his view that the election of Matthias to replace Judas was 


unjustified does not give recognition to arguments against his view. 

To those interested in New Testament biographical study this 
volume will be of lasting interest. Its numerous rich homiletical 
treasures should stimulate the sermonic interests of any pastor. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 

Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 

Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1969. 327 pp. $4.95. 

Herbert Lockyer's books are profitable, especially his "All" 
series. This work is an in-depth study of ancient arts and crafts, how 
people lived and labored. He covers a total of 200 male occupations 
(secular and sacred) and 18 female occupations. 

Some of the historical-archeological facts of this book are enlighten- 
ing. Examples to be noted are "the Cosmetologist, " "the Dyer" and "the 
Postman. " Spiritual applications are strengthening in such articles as 
"the Benefactor, " "the Harvester" and "the Servant. " Word meanings and 
origins are helpful, e.g. "butler, " a Hebrew word meaning "cupbearer. " 
The activites of Christ in certain occupations are worth the price of the 
book. This basic material would make an excellent series of Bible 
lessons or sermons on the life of Christ. 

The occupations are considered alphabetically with the male and 
female works taken separately. Cross references are given such as 
"the Clerk" (pp. 74, 75) and "the Town Clerk" (p. 233). Footnotes 
are not used and references to authors like Edward Young (p. 40) are 
often unidentified in the text or the bibliography (p. 300). The length 
of the discussions range from "the Tutor" with nine lines to "the 
Soldier" with ten pages. An exhaustive Scripture reference is given at 
the back of the book. 

In a vast work like this, not all readers will agree with the ideas 
of Lockyer (e.g. Phoebe, "the Deaconess," or Israel's last jubilee 
begins with I Thess. 4:16, I Cor. 15:52). If this book is reprinted, 
some problems might be considered: "sheep" for "sleep" (p. 200); 
"after" for "before" (p. 61); author "Fairburn" (p. 74, cf. "Fairbairn, " 
p. 300). 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 


ALL THE HOLV VMS ANV H0L1VAVS. By Herbert Lockyer. Zondervan 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1968. 283 pp. $4.95. 

Ministers and teachers shy away from preaching another man's 
work. However, most speakers need resource material and Dr. 
Herbert Lockyer is a good source. All of his books are profitable. 

This work contains thirty -eight sermons on all the national and 
religious memorial days. Of course, he travels the road of western, 
protestant tradition or he would need volumes to cover all sacro -secular 
days of the world. His sermonic meditations run the gamut from 
Christmas through Election day. For regular holidays, Dr. Lockyer 
remembers days such as St. Patrick's day, April Fool's day and vaca- 
tion days. He includes the common "holy" days of Easter, Pentecost 
and Lent. He has sermons for unusual days such as pupil graduation, 
pastor ordination and children dedication. 

Each sermon is preceded by an applicable poem or valuable 
reading. The meditations are short, three to seven pages in length. 
Each sermon has a discussion of the origin of the day, the importance 
of holding it and a spiritual application. Dr. Lockyer quotes very few 
Bible verses, but he gives the spiritual sense. As in his other works, 
he omits author names, book titles and page numbers from his refer- 
ences. Dr. Lockyer is an English author and lecturer worthy of the 
reader's attention. 

James H. Gabhart 

First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 


Baptist Press, Des Plaines, Illinois, 1972. 93 pp. $2.95. 

Here is the clear testimony of a conservative Baptist preacher 
and college president concerning his faith in the plenary inspiration and 
infallible authority of the Bible. Dr. Jeremiah, who has been president 
of Cedarville College since 1954, presents the importance of inspiration 
to Biblical authority, to fulfilled prophecy, to the expository preacher, 
and to Christian experience. The four chapters are well outlined; the 
message is clearly presented and easily read. The writer has read 
extensively and makes frequent apt quotations from various conservative 
sources. Liberal writers are not quoted, nor represented in the Bibliog- 
raphy. The author appropriately makes frequent scriptural quotations 
as the foundation for the teaching. 


The third chapter, which deals with the importance of inspiration 
to the expository preacher, presents a timely message for our day. 
This chapter especially would make this small volume an appropriate 
gift to any young man who is preparing for or beginning his ministry 
as a preacher and teacher of the Word of God. A valuable addition for 
any church library. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 


THE PLAIN TRUTH ABOUT ARMSTRONGISM. By Roger R. Chambers. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1972. 146 pp. $1.25. 
HELP! I'M A PARENT. By Dr. Bruce Narramore. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 

1972. 174 pp. $3.95, cloth. 
A GUIDE TO CHILD REARING. By Dr. Bruce Narramore. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand 

Rapids, 1972. 160 pp. $2.95, paper. 
CHURCH ALIVE. By William Sanford LaSor. Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, California, 

1972. 429 pp. $1.95. 
HEAVY QUESTIONS. By Dave Grant. Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, 1972. 167 pp. 

$1. 25. 
BODY LIFE. By Ray C. Stedman. Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, 1972. 149 pp. $.95. 
JOURNEY AWAY FROM GOD. By Robert P. Benedict. Fleming H. Revell Co., Old Tappan, 

New Jersey, 1972. 189 pp. $4.95, cloth. 
CHRISTIAN COUNSELLING AND OCCULTISM. By Dr. Kurt E. Koch. Kregel Publications, 

Grand Rapids, 1972. 338 pp. $4.50, paper. 
I CORINTHIANS, A SELF-STUDY GUIDE. By Irving L. Jensen. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 

112 pp. $1.50. 
GLEANINGS FROM ELISHA. By Arthur W. Pink. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 254 pp. , 

$5.95, cloth. 
FRONTIERS IN MISSIONARY STRATEGY. By C. Peter Wagner. Moody Press, Chicago, 1971. 

223 pp. $4.95, cloth. 
THE KINGDOM OF GOD VISUALIZED. By Ray E. Baughman. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 

286 pp. $5.95, cloth. 
LIVING IN THE SPIRIT--IS IT REAL? By Manford George Gutzke. Baker Book House, Grand 

Rapids, 1972. 238 pp. $2.95, paper. 
A TREASURY OF G. CAMPBELL MORGAN. Compiled by Ralph G. Turnbull. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1972. 229 pp. $2.95, paper. 
HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI. By Joyce Baldwin. Inter-Varsity Press, Downer's Grove, 

Illinois, 1972. 253 pp. $5.95, cloth. 
COUNSELING. By Lars I. Granberg and others. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, n. d. 162 

pp. $1.65, paper. 
HOMILETICS. By Vernon L. Stanfield and others. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, n.d. 

156 pp. $1. 65, paper. 
A MINISTER'S OBSTACLES. By Ralph G. Turnbull. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, reprinted 

1972. 192 pp. $2.95, paper. 
WHAT YOU BELIEVE AND WHY. By Leslie Woodson. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand 

Rapids, 1972. 160 pp. $1.95. 
YOUTH MINISTRY - Its Renewal in the Local Church. By Lawrence O. Richards. Zondervan 

Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 364 pp. $6.95, cloth. 
AN INDEX' to the Bauer-Arndt-Gingrich GREEK LEXICON. By John R. Alsop. Zondervan Pub- 
lishing House, Grand Rapids, Reprinted 1972. 489 pp. $4.95, paper. 
JERUSALEM TO ROME. By Homer A. Kent, Jr. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 202 

pp. $2.95; $3.95, cloth. 
PLAIN TALK ABOUT REAL CHRISTIANS. By Manford George Gutzke. Baker Book House.Grand 

Rapids, 1972. 118 pp. $1.95. 
EFFECTIVE COUNSELING. By Gary Collins. Creation House, Carol Stream, Illinois, 1972. 

202 pp. $2.95, paper. 
MAN IN TRANSITION. By Gary Collins. Creation House, Carol Stream, Illinois, 1971. 203 

pp. $4.95, cloth. 
OUR SOCIETY IN TURMOIL. Edited by Gary Collins. Creation House, Carol Stream, Illinois, 

1970. 306 pp. $5.95, cloth. 
THE GOSPELS IN CURRENT STUDY. By Simon Kistemaker. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 

1972. 171 pp. $2.95, paper. 
GOD CALLING. By A. J. Russell, Ed. Fleming H. Revell Co. , Old Tappan, New Jersey, 

1972. 208 pp. $1.25. 
THE TOUCH OF THE MASTER'S HAND. By Charles L. Allen. Fleming H. Revell Co., Old 

Tappan, New Jersey, 1972. 128 pp. $.95. 
TOWARD A THEOLOGY FOR THE FUTURE. Edited By Clark H. Pinnock & David F. Wells, 

Creation House, Carol Stream, Illinois, 1971. 329 pp. $4.95. 
BEFORE THE LAST BATTLE-ARMAGEDDON. By Arthur E. Bloomfield. Bethany Fellowship, 

Inc., Minneapolis, 1971. 192 pp. $1.95. 



THE THIRD DIMENSION. By Rex Humbard. Fleming H. Revell Co. , Old Tappan, New Jersey, 

1972. 154 pp. $3.95. 
THE GRACE OF GOD IN THE GOSPEL. By John Cheeseman and others. The Banner of Truth, 

Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 1972. 141 pp. $1.25. 
A NEW BREED OF CLERGY. By Charles Prestwood. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , Grand 

Rapids, 1972. 108 pp. $1.95. 
GENESIS IN SPACE AND TIME. By Francis A. Schaeffer. Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove, 

Illinois, 1972. 167 pp. $2.25. 
SCIENCE TEACHING. By Robert J. Ream. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 

Box 185 Nutley, New Jersey 07110, 1972. 103 pp. $2.50, paper. 
THE BIG UMBRELLA. By Jay E. Adams. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 

Box 185 Nutley, New Jersey 07110, 1972. 265 pp. $3.75, paper. 
PURSUED. By Vera Schlamm with Bob Friedman. Gospel Light Publications, 110 W. Broad- 
way, Glendale, California, 1972. 212 pp. $1.25, paper. 
ARE DEMONS FOR REAL? By Robert Peterson. Moody Press, Chicago. 134 pp. 1972. $.75, 

THE RSV HANDY CONCORDANCE. Zondervan Publighing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 

191 pp., $1.25, paper. 
THE JOHANNINE LOGOS. By Gordon H. Clark. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co. , 

Box 185, Nutley, New Jersey, 1972. 90 pp., $2.95, paper. 
THE EPISTLE OF JUDE. By George Lawrence Lawlor. International Library Series, Presby- 
terian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1972. 151 pp. $3.95, paper. 
JESUS THE MESSIAH. By Donald Guthrie. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Mich- 
igan, 1972. 386 pp. $6.95, cloth. 
CHRIST IN THE PSALMS. By John E. Hunter. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 

Michigan, 1972. 145 pp., $1.25, paper. 
HOW LOST ARE THE HEATHEN? By J. Oswald Sanders. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 80 

pp. $. 75, paper. 
THE COMPELLING INDWELLING. By James H. Jauncey. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 127 

pp. $1. 95, paper. 

House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 302 pp. $6.95, cloth. 
MY NAME IS LEGION. By Glenna Henderson. Bethany Fellowship, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 

1972. 128 pp. $3.95, cloth. 
THE CRAFT OF SERMON CONSTRUCTION. By William E. Sangster. Baker Book House, Grand 

Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 208 pp. $2.95, paper. 
YOU THE TEACHER. By Lawrence O. Richards. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 124 pp. 

$1.95, paper. 
CHURCH/MISSION TENSIONS TODAY. By C. Peter Wagner. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 

238 pp. $4.95, cloth. 
AUDIO-VISUAL MEDIA. (In Christian Education) By Gene A. Getz. 1972. 236 pp. $5.95, 

DELIVER US FROM EVIL. By Don Basham. Chosen Books, Washington Depot, Connecticut, 

1972. 223 pp. $4.95, cloth. 

Publications, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49501. 1972. 1,007 pp. $12.95, cloth. 
DARE TO DISCIPLINE. By Dr. James C. Dobson, Jr. Co-published, Gospel Light Publications, 

Glendale, and Tyndale House, Publishers, Wheaton, 1972. 244 pp. $1.95, paper. 
NIGHT SCENES IN THE BIBLE. By Daniel March. Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, n.d. 

this ed. 336 pp. $5.95, cloth. 
THE GOSPEL IN THE STARS. By Joseph A. Seiss. Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, 1972. 

188 pp. $6.95, cloth. 
FOR TIMES LIKE THESE. By William Culbertson. Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 128 

pp. $. 75. 
THE QUEST FOR NOAH'S ARK. By John Warwick Montgomery. Bethany Fellowship, Inc. 

Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1972. 335 pp. $6.95. 
WORSHIP & POLITICS. By Albert F. Gedraitis. Wedge Publishing Foundation, Toronto 2B, 

Canada, 1972. 93 pp. 
THE CROSS AND THE FLAG. By Clouse - Linder - Pierard. Creation House, Carol Stream, 

Illinois, 1972. 261 pp. $2.95, paper. 
INDEPENDENT BIBLE STUDY. By Irving L. Jensen. Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 

188 pp. $2.95, paper. 


THE CITY. By George Sweeting. Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 128 pp. $2.95, 

LIVING THOUGHTS FOR THE CHILDREN'S HOUR. By Kenneth N. Taylor. Moody Press, Chicago, 

Illinois, 1972. 126 pp. $2.95, cloth. 
THE UNPRIVATE LIFE OF A PASTOR'S WIFE. By Frances Nordland. Moody Press, Chicago, 

Illinois, 1972. $3.95, cloth. 176 pp. 
CRUCIAL ISSUES IN MISSIONS TOMORROW. By Donald McGavran. Moody Press, Chicago, 

Illinois, 1972. 272 pp. $4.95, cloth. 
V. RAYMOND EDMAN in the presence of the King. Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 

255 pp. $4.95, cloth. 

Illinois, 1972. 61 pp. $1.95, paper. 
REVELATION VISUALIZED. By Gary Cohen & Salem Kirban. Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 

1972. 480 pp. $8.95, paper. 
JAMES a practical faith. By Murray W. Downey. Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 141 

pp. $2.25, paper. 
THE NEW TESTAMENT. By Charles B. Williams. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 572 pps. 

$1. 95, paper. 
THE PASTOR'S WIFE AND THE CHURCH. By Dorothy Harrison Pentecost. Moody Press, 

Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 315 pp. $2.95, paper. 
THE BEGINNING OF SORROWS. By Salem Kirban. Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 

142 pp. $3.95, paper. 
THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. By Homer A. Kent, Jr. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 

1972. 303 pp. $5.95, cloth. 

Robert Webber. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 215 pp. $6.95. 
SALVATION. Lewis Sperry Chafer. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 7th printing, 

1972 (Copyright, 1917). 149 pp. $1.95, paper. 
OUTLINES OF THEOLOGY. By A. A. Hodge. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, re- 
printed 1972 from 1879 edition. 678 pp. $9.95, cloth. 
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. By James Montgomery Boice. Zondervan Publishing House, 

Grand Rapids, 1972. 328 pp. 
A SYMPOSIUM ON CREATION. By Donald W. Patten. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 

159 pp. $2.95, paper. 
SPEAKING FOR THE MASTER. By Batsell Barrett Baxter. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 

1972 (reprinted). 134 pp. $2.95, paper. 
A CHRISTIAN VIEW OF ORIGINS. By Donald England. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 

138 pp. $2.95, paper. 

Publishing House, 1972. 192 pp., cloth. 

Publishing House, 1972. 120 pp. $3.95, cloth. 
WHICH BIBLE? Edited by David Otis Fuller, D.D. Grand Rapids International Publications, 

Grand Rapids, (a division of Kregel, Inc.), Box 2607, 1972. 318 pp. $2.95, paper. 
IS LIFE WORTH LIVING? By Floyd E. Mallott. The Brethren Press, Elgin, Illinois, 1972. 

124 pp. $4.25, cloth. 
THE BOOK OF HABAKKUK. By John H. Stoll. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 89 pp. 

$1.50, paper. 
TRUTH ON FIRE. By Clark H. Puinock. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 94 pp. 

$1.95, paper. 
THE CITY AND THE SIGN. By Geoffrey T. Bull. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 

156 pp. $3.95, cloth. 
MALACHI'S MESSAGE FOR TODAY. By G. Campbell Morgan. Baker Book House, Grand 

Rapids, 1972. 131 pp. $1.95, paper. 
SATAN IS ALIVE AND WELL ON PLANET EARTH. By Hal Lindsey with C.C. Carlson, Zonder- 
van Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 255 pp. $2.25, paper. 
THE NEW COMPACT TOPICAL BIBLE. Compiled by Gary Wharton. Zondervan Publishing 

House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 536 pp. $4.95, cloth. 
GENESIS IN SPACE & TIME. By Francis A. Schaeffer. Regal Div. , Gospel Light Publications, 

Glendale, California, co-published with Inter- Varsity, 1972. 174 pp. $2.25. 



Winona Lake, Indiana 

FALL 1973 

Vol. 14 No. 3 


A publication of Grace Theological Seminary 



EDITORIAL Homer A. Kent, Jr. 3 








GRACE JOURNAL is published three times each year (Winter, Spring, Fall) by Grace Theological Seminary, in co- 
operation with the Grace Seminary Alumni Association. 

EDITORIAL POLICY: The editors of GRACE JOURNAL hold the historic Christian faith, and accept without reservation 
the inerrancy of Scripture and the premillennial view of eschatology. A more complete expressiopi of their theological 
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necessarily endorse every opinion that may be expressed by individual writers in the JOURNAL. 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES: $2.00 per calendar year; single copy, 754. 

ADDRESS: All subscriptions and review copies of books should be sent to GRACE JOURNAL. Box 397, Winona Lake, 
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Copyright, 1973 by Grace Theological Seminary. All rights r 


Published by 









HOMER A. KENT, JR., Editor 

JOHN C. WHITCOMB, JR., Managing Editor 

S. HERBERT BESS, Book Review Editor 

GRACE JOURNAL is indexed by 

FOR MOSHER LIBRARY (Dallas Theological Seminary) 



With regret it must be announced that this will be 
the last issue of GRACE JOURNAL. For fourteen years 
the faculty of Grace Theological Seminary has endeavored 
to provide serious reading fare in Biblical and related 
studies. Reviews of significant books have assisted busy 
pastors, teachers, and students in keeping abreast of the 
growing stream of religious volumes, particularly those 
of evangelical interest. Lectures of enduring value de- 
livered at Grace Seminary have been made available to a 
much larger audience through inclusion in the pages of 
GRACE JOURNAL. Many letters of appreciation testify to 
the help provided by the articles and book reviews of our 
contributors, and this has been encouraging to the editor- 
ial staff. 

Time, however, brings its changes. For the faculty 
of Grace Theological Seminary the increased burdens im- 
posed by a steadily growing student body have necessitated 
a reassessment of priorities. Nevertheless it has not 
been without a sense of regret that the step of ceasing 
publication of GRACE JOURNAL has been taken. The 
expressions of support from our readers have been deeply 
appreciated, and the faculty of the Seminary is desirous 
of continuing its contribution to the vital work of Biblical 
and theological study, not only in the classroom but through 
the printed page. Toward this end a different format is 
under study. We are confident that we may count on the 
prayers of our faithful readers that Grace Theological 
Seminary may continue to have an important ministry in 
the cause of Biblical Christianity. 

--Homer A. Kent, Jr. 




Grace Theological Seminary 

It is innate in the thinking of men that service deserves reward. 
To put the matter as an objective fact, "The laborer is worthy of his hire" 
(Luke 10:7). Therefore, the structure of society is arranged about this 
central idea, and so far as history reveals, it has always followed this 
principle. The only exception is the slave, and even here there was a 
measure of consideration given to the provision for his keep. 

It is current in the thinking of today that reward is computed in 
terms of material things. Within the context of a highly developed mon- 
etary system this is generally identified as money. This medium of ex- 
change makes it easy to shift from one sort of substantial goods to another 
with the least difficulty. Even the servant of God finds it more conven- 
ient to compute his services in terms of money. 

It is amazing, however, to discover that compensation ranges 
far beyond the material rewards, and these outweigh monetary worth. 
There are few who give sufficient attention to these to realize that these 
provide the driving force for the most faithful service, and provide spon- 
taneity and fragrance for the ministry. When I began to itemize the 
length and breadth of these as they relate to my own service, I began to 
realize how much these must mean to others. 

In the course of this discussion, I want to discuss seven. And 
this discussion must of necessity be brief. 


In a context dealing with the right use of Christian libertv, but 
at this point focusing on remuneration, the Apostle Paul declares, "Know 
ye not that they which run in a race run all, but one receiveth the prize? 
So run, that ye may obtain. And every man that striveth for the mas- 
tery is temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain a corruptible 


crown; but we an incorruptible. I therefore so run, not as uncertainly; 
so fight I, not as one that beateth the air: But I keep under my body, 
and bring it into subjection; lest that by any means, when I have preached 
to others, I myself should be a castaway" (1 Cor. 9:23-27). 

The subject of salvation is not under consideration in this pas- 
sage. It is addressed to saved people. But the subject of service is 
the focal point. The privilege of service the Apostle Paul counts as his 
highest possession. And he does not want to do anything that would dis- 
qualify him so that it would be necessary to lay him on the shelf. 

This means that appointment to service is a divine function. A 
dispensation of the gospel had been committed to him (1 Cor. 9:17). The 
Lord Jesus Christ had enabled him, and counted him faithful, putting him 
into the ministry (1 Tim. 1:12). He found himself, therefore, by this 
appointment "a preacher and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles" 
(2 Tim. 1:11). He soon learned that no man taketh this to himself, but 
only as they are called of the Lord are they inducted into such a high 
and holy place of ministry. But he also learned that appointment to serv- 
ice is only the first step in this program. 

There is also the apprehension of service which devolves upon the 
servant himself on the human side. As he pursued this ministry and 
experienced the things which God wrought through him (1 Cor. 15:10; 
Acts 14:27), he began to prize more highly the value of this ministry. 
He even contemplated what it would mean to have this ministry taken from 
him. He reached that place where he was willing to undergo any hard- 
ship or any stringency of self-discipline that he might not be disqualified 
for ministry and be laid on the shelf. He found in this ministry a com- 
pensation all its own. Here was a compensation dearer than life itself. 
This was his life. To have it taken from him would have converted him 
into a human derelict. He could not countenance the thought. 


The function of the ministry is twofold. It consists first of all 
in performing the function of a depository for the conservation of the 
truth, and in the second place that of a broadcaster for the communica- 
tion of the truth. These are really two sides of one thing. For what 
you communicate you conserve; and you conserve only by means of com- 

The conservation of the truth is one of the important functions of 
the ministry. To Timothy Paul declared that the glorious gospel had been 
committed to his trust (1 Tim. 1:11). In turn he said to Timothy, "This 
charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies 


which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good war- 
fare, holding faith" (1 Tim. 1:18-19). "O Timothy, keep that which is 
committed to thy trust" (1 Tim. 6:20). Into the hands of the faithful few 
this charge is laid. Whereas this message is recorded in the Bible, the 
Word of God, it is not conserved in the fullest sense of that word until 
it takes shape in the mind and heart and consciousness of a man. There 
it takes on vitality and breadth and reality. 

But coupled with conservation there must be the communication 
of the truth. Paul established this connection. "If thou put the breth- 
ren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minister of 
Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words of faith and of good doctrine, 
whereunto thou hast attained" (I Tim. 4:6). The good minister is there- 
fore urged to "Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; 
reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all longsuffering and doctrine" (2 Tim. 
4:2). Conservation will acquire a genealogy when the minister follows 
the injunction that "the things that thou has heard of me among many 
witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to 
teach others also" (2 Tim. 2:2). 

The consciousness of performing this function brings its own com- 
pensation that cannot be duplicated in any other way. Books will grow 
old with age and be counted of little value to a modern and changed gen- 
eration. But there is nothing antiquated or out of date in the message 
of life that is conserved and communicated by the living voice of one 
who has experienced it. 


This deals with the motivation for the ministry. And it strikes 
at the heart of ministry which differentiates it from the calling of God 
and a mere professionalism. Mere professionalism will degenerate into 
dead formalism and at last into liberal pretense. May God deliver us 
from that. But motivation which is divorced from any form of selfish 
aggrandizement and sees two focal points, the first disappearing into the 
second, will be a ministry that will be dynamic and enduring. 

The motive of serving the Church is the nearest to our experi- 
ence and far reaching. Paul declared, "Therefore I endure all things 
for the elect's sakes, that they may also obtain the salvation which is 
in Christ Jesus with eternal glory" (2 Tim. 2:10). It is clear that every 
phase of salvation is in view: past, present, future. This means that 
he had one controlling passion, and that was that his life and ministrv 
would contribute to men and women everywhere, so that those among 
them who were the elect would be enabled to move forward to that phase 


of salvation which they had not yet experienced and reach that final phase 
of eternal glory with our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. This meant 
ignominy, hunger, deprivation, imprisonment, defamation, peril to life. 
Hence, men among the intelligentsia were moved by this man; men in 
high political station, men who belonged to the military, men who were 
among the class of slaves. 

The motive for glorifying the Lord is overshadowing and basic 
for the ministry. "Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye 
do, do all to the glory of God" (I Cor. 10:31). This motive is all con- 
suming. There is no area of experience where it cannot be applied. 
With this as the guiding principle in life, the path appointed of the Lord 
at times may seem most narrow and rock-strewn. It leads to Calvary. 
That is where the journey ended for Christ. It led to the crucifixion of 
Peter upside down. It led to the chopping block for the Apostle Paul. 
It has meant the silent contempt and the open persecution of many for 
Christ's sake. But over that way those saints have traveled, there was 
joy that they could suffer for Christ. As Paul put it to those who were 
attempting to dissuade him from the path he knew to be right, "But none 
of these things move me, neither count I my life dear to myself, so 
that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry, which I have 
received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God" 
(Acts 20:24). It was this man who near the end of his life could face 
the Sanhedrin and exclaim, "I have lived in all good conscience before 
God until this day" (Acts 23:1). 

This is compensation in its own right. 


The rewards of the servant of God are closely associated with the 
actual experiences that go into the ministry. It is impossible to initi- 
ate the procreative process without finding in the child a compensation 
in its own right. This is just as true of the ministry. In the nature 
of the case, there is the travail to bring to nativity, and this is fol- 
lowed by the process of nourishing to bring to maturity. 

The nativity of a human soul in the Christian faith led the Apostle 
Paul to exclaim, "For though ye have ten thousand instructors in Christ, 
yet have ye not many fathers: for in Christ Jesus I have begotten you 
through the gospel" (I Cor. 4:15). It was in the midst of deep travail 
that this birth took place. "I was with you in weakness, and in fear, 
and in much trembling. And my speech and my preaching was not with 
enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and 
of power: that your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but 


in the power of God" (I Cor. 2:3-5). He was in the midst of a foreign 
population, the marks of paganism stamped on every area of life, in the 
shadow of intellectualism, confronting the loathesomeness of immorality, 
menaced by political foes, in the most populous city of Greece. And 
yet his straightforward testimony brought some souls to the birth. This 
was compensation in itself for all that he had ventured for the Lord. 

The nurturing of a human soul to maturity in the faith follows the 
same pattern. In stirring language the Apostle Paul describes the time 
and energy spent over the saints in Thessalonica. "We were gentle among 
you, even as a nurse cherisheth her children: So, being affectionately 
desirous of you, we were willing to have imparted unto you, not the gos- 
pel of God only, but also our own souls, because ye were dear unto us. 
For ye remember, brethren, our labor and travail: for laboring night 
and day, because we would not be chargeable unto any of you, we preached 
unto you the gospel of God. Ye are witnesses, and God also, how holily 
and justly and unblameably we behaved ourselves among you that believe: 
As ye know we exhorted, and comforted, and charged every one of you, 
as a father doth his children, that ye would walk worthy of God, who 
hath called you unto his kingdom and glory. .. For what is our hope, or 
joy, or crown of rejoicing? Are not even ye in the presence of our 
Lord Jesus Christ at his coming? For ye are our glory and joy" (I 
Thess. 2:7-12, 19-20). 


The thing I am about to discuss is in some sense related to all 
that I have said. And yet there is a sense in which, if all the other 
things that could be classified as compensation were suddenly nullified, 
this one thing would be sufficient compensation in itself. I am talking 
about something that is totally apart from position, procedure, purpose, 
and product. I am now talking about something that is intensely per- 
sonal. Is there not something about being set aside for ministry that 
brings its own inner satisfaction, and that satisfaction leads you to say 
to yourself, I wouldn't trade places with any other man? Let me sug- 
gest three aspects of this truth. 

There is that personal satisfaction of being a recipient of the 
truth . In the three personal accounts of Paul's conversion he lays special 
emphasis upon this fact. He revels in the fact that the God of his fathers 
has chosen him to see the face of the just One, to hear His voice, and 
to know His will (Acts 22:14). There is something about that that is 
utterly staggering to the imagination; that God in His grace should select 
him out of the multitude, and then reveal Himself to him, when the mill- 
ing multitudes of men go on their blind and uncertain wav. You cannot 


read these accounts of Paul's conversion, nor the intimations appearing 
in Paul's writings without being convinced that he cherished this revela- 
tion. Lest he be lifted up overmuch, the Lord had to send a messenger 
of Satan to buffet him. But even in physical affliction, there was no dim- 
inution of gratitude for this privilege (2 Cor. 12L1-10). 

There is that personal satisfaction for comprehension of the truth. 
This cannot be complete comprehension, for that would argue for an infin- 
ite mind. One must exclaim with Paul, "O the depth of the riches both 
of the wisdom and knowledge of God. How unsearchable are his judg- 
ments, and his ways past finding out" (Rom. 11:33). But there is a rev- 
elation of wisdom that the Spirit of God gives. This is a "wisdom among 
them that are perfect; yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes 
of this world, that come to nought. But we speak the wisdom of God in 
a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world 
unto our glory: which none of the princes of this world knew: for had 
they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of Glory: But, 
as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered 
into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that 
love him. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the 
Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God" (I Cor. 2:6-10). 
This brings the believer to that place where he is able to examine all 
things (I Cor. 2:15). 

The compensation of inner satisfaction that he has a grasp of 
truth, he comprehends the movement of the times, and he realizes his 
own place in that grand system of the ages is overwhelming. It is the 
conviction born of this comprehension that leads one to say in life's dark- 
est hour: "I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is 
able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day" 
(2 Tim. 1:12). 


There has never been invented anything to take the place of ex- 
pression of gratitude from a human heart for benefit received. It is a 
fragrance rising from an appreciative heart in which there is no merit 
and where no merit is intended, but by virtue of its very nature it be- 
comes an overflowing compensation to him upon whom it is conferred. 
It is the return of grace for grace received, and takes a large place in 
the life and ministry of the servant of God. It does what money can 
never do. 

Gratitude in expression for conversion is one place where the 
minister is the recipient. In one of the testimonies of Paul he refers 


to the ministry of Stephen. "And I said, Lord, they know that I impri- 
soned and beat in every synagogue them that believed on thee: And when 
the blood of thy martyr Stephen was shed, I also was standing by, and 
consenting unto his death, and kept the raiment of them that slew him" 
(Acts 22:19-20). That is Paul's way of expressing gratitude for the human 
instrument that led him to salvation. He remembered his invincible 
exposition of the Scriptures in the Alexandrian Synagogue, the inescap- 
able indictment of his apologetic before the Sanhedrin, that face which 
shone like that of an angel, and the perfect willingness of Stephen to 
suffer death for the Lord Jesus, even though innocent. And here in this 
testimony before the Jews he pays tribute to this man as having such 
a large part in leading him to conversion. 

The necessary exhortation to continue in the faith has aroused 
the gratitude of many a saint. Over and over again Paul exercised this 
ministry in behalf of those saints he had led to the Lord (Acts 13:43). 
He urges Timothy more than once to continue in those things which he 
learned and was assured of, knowing of whom he had learned them (2 
Tim. 3:14). There is no recorded word of response. But it is a fair 
assumption that if there are any records, they will reveal the often- 
repeated expressions of thanksgiving that Paul was used of God to help 
them over the hard places, to encourage when the going was rough, to 
explain the confusing situations that produced frustration. Many can re- 
call instances when they have been encouraged by those whom they have 
helped. Is not this a compensation of inestimable value? 

Commitment to the ministry also comes in for its share of com- 
pensation when traced to a human agent. It was a pastor who put the 
matter to me so that I could not escape the issue. For this I shall be 
eternally grateful. Perhaps every ministerial reader can trace his ex- 
perience back to a time, and a place, and a person who was used of 
the Lord to bring him into the place of ministry. Surely you are grate- 
ful. And perhaps you have in turn had that experience with others. 
Does it give you an inner satisfaction, more than that, a reward for the 
privilege of being used in that way? Here is something that cannot be 
computed in terms of material gain. It is something that compensates 
for all the rigors and toil and the hardship of the way. Barnabas served 
in this capacity for Paul. After his conversion, it was Barnabas who 
introduced Paul to the apostles in Jerusalem (Acts 9:26-28). When there 
was need for a teacher in Antioch, it was Barnabas who sought out Paul 
and inducted him into service (Acts 11:22-26). And then, at last, it was 
Barnabas who joined with this man at Antioch and there began the first 
great missionary journey (Acts 13:1-3). Surely Barnabas will never cease 
to find reward as the agent in reaching and directing Paul. 



In some sense, all that has been discussed up to this point has 
its realization in the present life, at least partially so. But now I want 
to dwell on that which reaches beyond the present age into the unending 
ages of eternity. Two things militate against the fullest realization of 
compensation in the present. The one is the human limitation in esti- 
mating worth. The other is the personal limitation in appreciating the 
compensation. But both of these will be removed when the present age 
passes away and the prefection of the future ages is ushered in. 

Divine approval will greet the minister beyond this present life. 
The race will have been run. The tasks will have been finished. The 
fight will have been fought. There remains then the organization of all 
the facts and the estimation of their worth. Then the righteous Judge 
will take account of His servants and their worth, and will render right- 
eous judgment. He will be able to assemble all the facts for this eval- 
uation. This will include the motives that moved the heart, the means 
that were employed to accomplish the ends, and the results that pro- 
ceeded from the efforts. He will have a clear picture of the task He 
committed to His servant. He will understand the ability of His servant 
to produce. And where there is merit, in His sight, there will be that 
word of commendation, "Well done, thou good and faithful servant" (Matt. 

Accurate computation will bring reward that is commensurate. 
Two guide lines will be followed by the Lord. The first will deal with 
the difficulty through which His servant toiled. For "every man shall 
receive his own reward according to his own labor" (I Cor.. 3:8). The 
word "labor" lays its emphasis upon the hardship, toil, difficulty, mis- 
understanding, and heartache His servant had to undergo in order to ac- 
complish a task for the Lord. The second will deal with the enterprise 
itself. "If any man's work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall 
receive a reward" (I Cor. 3:14). But even in this case, it will not be 
mere magnitude, but the quality that will be examined. For "the fire 
shall try every man's work of what sort it is" (I Cor. 3:13). The word 
"sort" lays emphasis upon quality, and such quality that will endure the 
rigorous test to which it is subjected. But the minister can be assured" 
that this will extend to the minutest detail, even the cup of cold water 
given in the name of the Lord (Matt. 10:42). 

Personal exaltation will be experienced in proportion to the quality 
and quantity of ministry. Paul was convinced that there was a crown of 
righteousness laid up for him, and not for him only, but for all those 
that love His appearing (2 Tim. 4:8). A number of crowns are alluded 


to in the Scriptures, which probably are only representative. But it is 
a way of saying that every energy and effort expended for the Lord will 
be properly rewarded. It is a way of setting forth a most important 
fact, namely, that there is moral responsibility in the Christian life, and 
that this responsibility has been intensified with the bestowal of grace. 
It is a way of emphasizing the fact that we live now in a passing order 
of things, and therefore the strictest of logic should impel one to set 
his affections on things above and beyond that never pass away. By this 
method it is possible to see the present in true perspective as that which 
is relative, and concentrate on that which is real, absolute, and eternal. 

For what it is worth, it should be noted that the crowns received 
will at last be laid at the feet of Him who sits upon the rainbow-circled 
throne. This is probably an indication that these crowns were actually 
acquired as a result of His grace, and therefore in all deference belong 
to Him as a proper recognition of His worth (Rev. 4:4, 10-12). 



Professor of New Testament 

Covenant Theological Seminary 

Well-known, traditional, conservative definitions for hermeneutics 
and exegesis are as follows: Hermeneutics treats of the laws of inter- 
pretation and exegesis applies those laws in dealing with the text of Scrip- 
ture. Actually the Greek word hermeneia in its various forms includes 
the concepts of explanation , interpretation, language (i.e., expressing 
thoughts in words, either in audible or written form) and translation . 
Likewise the Greek word exegesis and its several forms, in addition 
to the idea of lead or lead out , carries similar meanings of exposition, 
explanation and interpretation . * Therefore, it is quite obvious that 
linguistically there is a considerable similarity in meaning between these 
two Greek terms. Although a concept of history is not explicitly con- 
veyed in the primary meaning of either of the two Greek words, the 
idea is certainly implicit for the very idea of explaining and interpreting 
suggests taking into account the historical background and culture of the 
author and his readers. 

In this presentation, what is discussed as guiding principles for 
historical grammatical exegesis will be developed from the viewpoint that 
there is an inter -action and inter-relation between hermeneia and exegesis 
and that they both are concerned with the principles of interpretation 
which the interpreter applies to the ancient text of Scripture to determine 
its meaning in its own setting and culture and to "translate" or make 
meaningful that message to the lives of the interpreter and those to whom 
he propounds the message. James Robinson has correctly criticized any 
form of conservative hermeneutics that takes a very superficial view in 
the hermeneutical task in applying the principle of "understanding" the 
text to "simply explaining where ideas or influences come from, rather 
than penetrating into the meaning of the text. " 

In the definition of hermeneutics, stress must be placed on the 
fact that meaning or understanding involved in hermeneia and exegesis 
must include the two foundation stones of grammar, language and his- 
torical background. Kimmerle has stated that "hermeneutics ultimately 
is always hermeneutics of language, of words and sentences, of meanings 



and constellations of thought, " 4 and Robinson too holds that in the new 
hermeneutic history also must have a place in the sense that man is 
called upon "to encounter the history of the past" but seemingly only 
"in such a way as not to deny his own existential future and present 
responsibility. "^ In the hermeneutics presented here, this history and 
historical background is to be understood to carry the concepts of "past 
facticity" and temporal enactment or actuality. This distinction in the 
meaning of history held here points up the difference in the concept 
regarding fundamental thought forms that exist between those who hold 
the conservative view of hermeneutics and those who espouse forms of 
the new hermeneutic. In the latter group are such as John Dillenberger, 
who goes on to define hermeneutic as "the program by which total con- 
figurations, in which truth is enshrined, endlessly confront each other, 
in the totality and concreteness of their central claims. " 7 

In the discussion in this article, frequent references are made 
to studies in the new hermeneutic since arguments presented in such 
material can be helpful in evaluating the theological position of con- 
servative hermeneutics and can assist in emphasizing or re -emphasizing 
factors which have always been a basic part of conservative hermeneutics. 

Presuppositions for Conservative Hermeneutics 

It is the responsibility of the contemporary conservative Christian 
to think through again the Christian presuppositions which are to guide 
him as he defines the hermeneutical task of interpreting the text of Scrip- 
ture. Although Oscar Cullmann argues for an exegesis of Scripture with- 
out presuppositions, ° such a view actually places man in an unrealistic 
mental vacuum. From a biblical viewpoint, the conservative Christian 
must take the position that some presuppositional groundwork must be 
laid before engaging in a meaningful discussion of guiding principles 
for a conservative historical-grammatical exegesis. 

Basic to such a discussion is the biblical teaching of the verbal 
inerrancy and inspiration of the Old and New Testaments (II Timothy 
3:14-17). This concept of the trustworthiness and authority of the Bible 
does not follow from the literature being merely ancient, as Ernst Fuchs 
would have us believe was the viewpoint of Protestant orthodoxy, but 
because the Scriptures were written by men through the inspiration of 
the Holy Spirit (II Peter 3:14-17), so that what was written was the truth 
of God verbally communicated to men in the canonical Old and New 
Testaments. Dillenberger has caught the distinction when he says: "That 
transformation [following the first seventeen-eighteen centuries A.D. ] 
can be characterized as the transition from the notion that truth has 
been delivered in the past and is to be uncovered and recovered in every 
age to the view that truth is fundamentally to be discovered or that it 


lies in the future *". . . . Until well into the eighteenth century, the 
citation of authority was standard practice." 11 

The importance of this doctrine of verbal inerrancy and inspira- 
tion of Scripture for conservative hermeneutics is further seen in ob- 
serving the remarks of Robert Funk when he says: "Biblical Theology 
began by having to challenge the very basis on which it rested, viz. , 
the orthodox doctrine of verbal inspiration. The challenge was neces- 
sitated by the desire to break the effective control of dogmatics over 
the interpretation of Scripture 1 ^ and thus to establish Biblical theology 
as a historical discipline. " ii5 Fuchs has described this enlightenment 
as the protest "against procedures of a Scriptural interpretation that 
continued to claim historical truth for itself. "^ This denial of verbal 
inerrancy of Scripture often ends up in a two -level approach to the 
Scriptures, which as Martin Woudstra notes, results in the creation of 
two Bibles, the one compelling faith in God and in His revelation, the 
other a historical document which may be read, as Piper says, so as 
to 'leave us free to accept or reject their content. '"15 

Thus it can be seen that what is really at stake for a conservative 
hermeneutic is definitive propositional truth given by a personal God who 
has verbally communicated to man made in his image, and that this 
propositional truth is given in the supernaturally inspired Scriptures. 
Fitting in with this concept is the doctrine of supernatural predictive 
prophecy which conservative hermeneutics accepts as foundational, but 
which existential theology and the new hermeneutic have forsaken and 
rejected. Conservative hermeneutics presupposes that the Bible is ac- 
curate and true in its predictive prophecy, as exemplified when God 
predicts through His prophet Isaiah seven hundred years before Christ 
that Jesus was to be born of a virgin (Isaiah 7:14; cf. Matthew 1:23). 
The new hermeneutic rejects the idea, among other things, that such a 
time span between prophecy and fulfillment argues for the validity of the 
prophecy. It rather posits, as in a view expressed by Dillenberger, 

when we read along in a New Testament text and in- 
cessantly stumble upon quotations from the Old that 
interrupt the flow of the text, and when we conclude 
that they are not really relevant to make a point, *" 
it is important to recall the ancient way of thinking 
their predictive value was significant. If the notion 
of prediction is accepted, successful documentation is 
possible; if it is not accepted, documentation is itself 
the most dubious of all the enterprises of substantiation." 17 

Another important presupposition for conservative hermeneutics 
is the principle of a personal historical scientific research which sincerely 
approaches the subject studied from an objective scientific viewpoint and, 


while doing so, realizes that there is something out there that really 
factually happened in the past. Will Herberg in his article, "Five Mean- 
ings of the Word 'Historical,'" has delineated five basic conceptions of 
the word history: (1) the ordinary usage, as past facticity, as opposed 
to the mythical and legendary; (2) as temporal enactment, in contrast 
to "the timeless and eternal" (as in the Eastern religions); (3) as 
Geschichte (in contrast with historie ), which makes the historical and 
existential really "historic" in the sense that the true inner meaning of 
an "event" has significance for the future and a determinative effect on 
the on -going life of people;18 (4) as the essence of man's being (in con- 
trast to individual man's fixed structure of being); and (5) as the con- 
tinual existential shaping of man's nature by future decisions and actions 
(a view held by Rudolf Bultmann). 

A conservative hermeneutics must find its understanding of history 
within the first two definitions just outlined since such a hermeneutics 
is based on the logical and rational presupposition of a personal God 
communicating verbally and in written factual form to personal man in 
space and time, telling him all about his created world and his plan to 
redeem men. This is quite different from the perspective of Heinrich 
Ott who states that "a view of history which confines itself to what really 
happened gives us an inadequate and ultimately an abstract and superficial 
view of things. " ^ 

This view of a personal historical scientific research is the view- 
point that is found in the Bible's own handling of interpretation, as it 
stresses the true nature of the factual history and the true role of the 
interpreter in taking into consideration his own time as well as that of 
the material being studied and in striving to make the material in the 
ancient document relevant to his own experience and life. Such an ex- 
ample of this is seen in Galatians 2:20, where Paul makes the historical 
death and resurrection of Christ (of which he was not a personal observer 
or participant at the time of their actual occurrence) a vital part of his 
own living experience. There is some truth to Wolfgang Pannenberg's 
statement that "historical research, as a universal historical conception 
of events, cannot represent the events it seeks to reconstruct, when it 
moves behind the texts, as something entirely past, but rather that re- 
search must understand those events in the contexts of the meaning they 
have for the historian himself, and for his time" -- there is some 
truth in this statement if we understand it from a conservative hermen- 
eutical viewpoint that past is to be recognized truly as "factually past" 
and not made to be equivalent to the present. 

Related to this concept that the interpreter must deal with the 
history of the past as truly past is the distinction which conservative 
hermeneutics has always made between the subject which observes and 


appropriates and the object which is observed and is appropriated. This 
distinction is seen in Peter's statement in II Peter 1:16-19, where he in 
reflection distinguishes himself and his readers who are to realize that 
the past facts related are not "cunningly devised fables" from the past 
facts themselves seen and heard on the mount: Christ in his majesty 
and the voice of God the Father. Then having made this distinction, 
he asks the readers (the original interpreters of his statements) along 
with himself to appropriate the truth to their own experience by "paying 
attention" to the truth of these things that had happened. 

Robinson sees the tension regarding the subject-object relation- 
ship that exists between the conservative hermeneutics and the new her- 
meneutic when he says : "Thus the flow of the traditional relation between 
subject and object in which the subject interrogates the object, and, if 
he masters it, obtains from it his answer, has been significantly reversed. 
For it is now the object which should henceforth be called the subject 
matter- -that puts the subject in question." 22 Bultmann shows this dis- 
tinction and radical approach in the argument of the new hermeneutic 
even more when he says in remarks about his exegesis of Paul's Romans, 
"it is a matter. . .also of the fact no man--not even Paul --can always 
speak only from the subject matter. Other spirits also come to expres- 
sion through him than the Spirit of Christ. Hence criticism can never 
be radical enough. " 2 ^ In the answer of conservative hermeneutics, it is 
to be observed that it is Paul, the author of Romans, who purports to 
be presenting his own well thought out teachings to the Roman church, 
and furthermore, as Paul considered the Old Testament writings as God 
inspired (I Timothy 3:14-17), so it is reasonable to posit that Paul him- 
self was under the aegis of the Holy Spirit, not another spirit, in so 
writing to this church. This distinction and correlation between subject 
and object make sense in the conservative Christian system of hermeneutics 
because this latter is based on the premise that the same reasonable 
personal God who made the universe, the thing to be known (Genesis 1; 
Acts 17:24-31; Colossians 1:15-18) made also a personal man the knower, 
and the object, the thing known. Actually, as Francis Schaeffer has 
pointed out, 24 man in his daily life regardless of his philosophical view- 
point, lives on the basis of a correlation and distinction between subject 
and object: For example, man knows and treats real the fact that if 
detergents are poured into rivers, the rivers are polluted and the fish 
die; and that the tree or car he sees and feels is there as a distinguish- 
able object that he can really know and know to the extent that he cannot 
walk through the tree nor smash into the car without the car and him- 
self being damaged. 

Based upon the reasonableness of a personal God communicating 
to a personal man in propositional written truth, the holy Scriptures, 
and based upon the reasonableness that such a written biblical commun- 
ication would tell about God's universe in terms describing historical 


facticity and substance, a conservative hermeneutics has the right to 
discuss among its examples and models for grammatical and historical 
principles of exegesis the New Testament record itself, and in particular, 
the historical life and teachings of Jesus, and it also has a right to 
advocate and expect that such hermeneutical models should be followed. 25 

A sampling of ideas from the New Testament will be considered 
in the following brief sections dealing with grammatical and historical 

Grammatical and Related Principles in Exegesis 

1. The Use of Words --Language 

From the grammatical side of hermeneutics and exegesis, the 
use of words is one of the most important subjects. Involved in this 
is one's theory of language. Schaeffer has pointed out that there has 
come a demise of the philosophy of positivism, a philosophy which as- 
sumes that the knower approaches things without presuppositions, and 
which, without any means of control or standard, is unable to determine 
whether anything is real or whether it is simply fantasy. With this 
collapse of positivism, two systems are left which are really anti- 
philosophies: (1) existentialism because it deals with the important 
questions of meaning and existence but leaves out rationality; and (2) 
linguistic analysis because although it is involved in the area of reason 
and the definitions of words, its ivewpoint of language only leads to 
language and not to values . " 

Now conservative hermeneutics based on examples of the New 
Testament proceeds on the premise that language is meaningful and does 
involve values and that the words in God's biblical communication carry 
historical, cultural, spiritual and moral meaning and values. As the 
interpreter approaches the Scripture, he is conscious of the words and 
endeavors to discover the kind of meaning carried by them: the current 
meaning (the usus loquendi ), an etymological one, a special or derived 
one (as an extension from the current or etymological meaning) or a 
combination of some or all of these. A simple New Testament illustra- 
tion of this definiteness of word meaning is to be seen in Greek words 
ho nomos and hoi prophetai in Matthew 5:17 where Jesus employs them 
with the understanding they carried in this kind of contact and connection, 
as referring in a technical sense to all the sacred writings of the Old 
Testament. ' This illustration in the historical sense is an example 
of language and subject matter coming together. This is quite different 
in the definiteness of its conclusion from that viewpoint described by 
Robinson when he talks about the dialectic between language and its sub- 
ject matter, (Sprache and Sache ) in that the word "disappears" into what 
it has to say--this being the point at which the hermeneutical discussion 


in Germany in these days stands. 2 ° Involved in this may be what John 
Cobb means when he states that in the minds of some who hold to the 
new hermeneutic there is an understanding that "God, Jesus Christ, Holy 
Spirit, and other key elements in the Christian scheme of things" are 
to be systematically "created as dimensions or structures of faith. "™ 

2. Figures, types, and prophecy. 

Figures, types and prophecy, especially since they are frequently 
used in Scripture, must be seriously considered in any discussion of 
conservative hermeneutics, and they are important in getting to the mean- 
ing of the text and applying that meaning to life. For example, it was 
Jesus who used the figure of the "bush" (the Greek expression is epi 
tou (tes) batou Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37) in a perfectly obvious reference, 
well understood in his day and also by us today, to the passage in Exodus 
3. He also used as a figure and a type the historical situation in Noah's 
day to portray what it will be like at the time of Christ's second coming 
(Matthew 24:36-44), as well as using Jonah's being three days in the 
fish's stomach as a figure and a type of Christ's being in the grave 
three days (Matthew 12:38-40). It was Jesus who predicted that the 
stones of the Herodian temple would fall (Matthew 24:1-2) and that in a 
far distant future day of Christ's second coming "the desolating sac- 
rilege" would stand in the holy place (Matthew 24:15). He also pointed 
out in retrospect a factor which the Jews in their first century historical 
situation could not or would not explain, that the Messiah was prophesied 
by David to be David's Lord (Matthew 22:42-45). These and many other 
examples which could be adduced can be meaningfully interpreted on the 
basis of factual historical events and which men in that time experienced 
and contemplated, and which modern man can understand and apply to 
his own life. On the other hand, such "details" of language in the 
biblical text understood in the existential sense minimize and actually 
obliterate all sense of concrete historical continuity in human experience 
and actually allow modern man to use the biblical words for any kind of 
meaningless non-rational experience which suits his fancy. 

That this is a critical point of distinction between the conservative 
hermeneutics and that of liberal theology and the more recent new her- 
meneutic is pointed up in the remarks of Robinson: "It was often in 
connection with the special rhetorical figures and literary forms of 
biblical literature that one came to treat the problems of allegory, 
typology, prophecy, and, in general, the Christian interpretation of the 
Old Testament. This part of hermeneutics had in a sense been replaced 
by the debate about the critical historical method, so that the decline 
of hermeneutics was in this regard in direct proportion to the rise of 
critical scholarship. Liberalism and conservatism tended to divide 
criticism and hermeneutics between them. This may in part explain the 
fact that hermeneutics as a discipline has survived in conservative circles 
even down to the present. "30 


3. Points of Syntax. 

A factual and historical consideration of points of syntax is also 
important in giving meaning to the biblical text. It can be pointed out, 
for example, that the present tense in the verb prosecho used in 
Matthew 6:1 is appropriately used to get across Jesus' emphasis that his 
disciples were to continue to pay attention as to how they were to ex- 
ercise their charitable giving. Also purposeful is the series of punct- 
iliar aorists used in the Lord's Prayer in Matthew 6:9-13. 

4. Context. 

In relating the various parts of the life of Christ together, the 
consideration of the context in which a particular part of Jesus' life is 
found is important in conservative hermeneutics. This does not mean 
that every part of each evangelist's Gospel is necessarily or completely 
narrated in chronological or logical order, but it does mean that the 
records make factual sense and hang together so that what the interpreter 
sees and understands to be in the records is a factual life of Christ, in 
which his teachings and actions make sense as they are related to human 
experiences found in a continuity of time and space. For example, 
Christ's teaching on prayer in Matthew 6:5-8 certainly fits into the 
context of the Lord's Prayer of Matthew 6:9-13, and vice versa. Sim- 
ilarly, the reference Jesus makes to the Old Testament event in which 
David and his men ate the bread of the Presence (Matthew 12:3-4, Mark 
2:25-28) fits naturally into the context of the preceding historical refer- 
ence to his disciples eating the grain on the Sabbath as they walked 
through the grainfields (Matthew 12:1-2; Mark 2:23-24). 

Some Historical and Other Related Principles 

It is not the purpose here to cover exhaustively all the historical 
aspects involved in conservative hermeneutics and exegesis, but a few 
important principles in this area are highlighted by posing some pertinent 
questions which a conservative hermeneutics must ask itself. 

1. Who the Author Is and Who Are Those to Whom He Writes. 

In a truly historical hermeneutics, the answer to this is an 
important question which helps in the understanding of the message 
given. Jesus' interest in this question is seen in the Gospel event in 
which he identifies Moses as the author of that section of Exodus 3 
which he calls the "bush. " Jesus specifically claims Moses to be the 
author when he uses the words, "even Moses showed in the passage about 
the bush. " (Luke 20:37, RSV). The author Mark is conscious of those 
with Roman background to whom he writes, when he preserves for their 
understanding Latin terms transliterated into Greek: such as legio (Mark 
5:9. 15), centurio (15:39, 44, 45) and praetorium (15:16). 


2. What Are the Cultural Settings of the Subject (the Interpreter) 
and the Object (The Facts and Events Contemplated). 

Biblical examples of interest from a historical perspective in 
such cultural settings can be seen in the accounts in which Jesus de- 
scribes the times of Noah and the flood (Matthew 24:36-39) and of Sodom 
and Gomorrah (Luke 17:28-30) as characterized by flagrant materialism 
and wickedness, and in which Jesus states that in the neighboring 
Phoenician towns of Tyre and Sidon the inhabitants used sackcloth and 
ashes to show their sorrow and repentance (Matthew 11:21). The ability 
to observe and evaluate as to their similarities and differences such 
cultural and moral patterns in different historical ages and places evi- 
dently is not recognized by Ernst Fuchs when dealing with the Bible, 
for he says: 

If I were to say that Rembrandt is the painter normative 
forever, Beethoven, the musician normative forever, 
and Goethe, the poet normative forever, I would be a 
barbarian who indeed had not grasped the essence of 
culture. But what is false in the field of culture must 
risked in the field of theology: that there is only one 
Gospel. 31 

In reply, it is reasonable to argue that this is a false dichotomy because 
the Bible, in presenting the message of God's salvation, does so in the 
context of the same real world in which the secular man lives, a world 
in which there are real differences and similarities. Furthermore, since 
all men are made by God, it is wrong to grant that men can really see 
distinct and different aspects of culture portrayed and produced by secular 
artists of more recent times, but deny that different cultural situations 
of ancient times can be accurately and factually portrayed by the biblical 
speaker and author. 

3. What the Author Wants To Say and Why He Wants To Say It. 

This question for conservative hermeneutics involves the content 
of the author's message, which is centered in historical facticity. The 
question also concerns the intention of the author. Jesus emphasizes 
the importance of intention when he implies that the moral implications 
of the Ten Commandments and the other commandments which flow from 
them (Exodus 20 ff . , etc.) which he cites in Matthew 5:21-48 have to 
do with a moral and orderly Jewish Old Testament society, and he makes 
clear his own intention in applying these same commandments to the 
New Testament era when he emphasizes the heart morality involved, a 
point that was also stressed in the Old Testament (cf. Leviticus 19:18). 
This is certainly exemplified in a grammatical-historical sense what 
Dillenberger seems to be calling for in another sense when he says, 


"The task of theological hermeneutic is to penetrate to the theological 
intention in all theological statements, "but he adds the disturbing thought, 
"whether the statements are affirmed or rejected. "^ 2 

4. How the Material Affects the Interpreter. 

This question, always important in the Bible itself, concerns the 
application of the message of the text to the interpreter and to those 
who hear his exposition. Biblical examples of such application of the 
text--the object--to the interpreter and hearer--the subject--is seen 
when Jesus, in applying the truth of Isaiah 61:1-2 to himself, cried out, 
"This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears" (Luke 4:21), and when 
Paul applies the message of Galatians 2:16-19 to his own heart and says, 
"I am crucified with Christ: Nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ 
liveth in me: the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son 
of God who loved me and gave himself for me" (Galatians 2:20. Cer- 
tainly this is the deeper role of understanding which has always been 
true of a conservative hermeneutics but which with another emphasis 
and existential meaning has been called for by Wilhelm Dilthey and 
others who have advocated the new hermeneutic. ** 


It has been observed that the hermeneutical and exegetical prin- 
ciples seen used in the New Testament, the same ones in fact that have 
always been emphasized in a truly conservative hermeneutics, are 
similar to some of the procedures called for by the advocates of the 
new hermeneutic and existentialism. But there is this basic difference: 
New Testament and conservative hermeneutics only and always have 
practiced these principles within the context of a history that involves 
true facticity and enactment in a continuity of time and space, and also 
involves a true subject-object distinction. 

Following these principles in a grammatical historical exegesis 
makes sense when presupposed by the reasonable proposition that a 
personal God has verbally communicated to personal man in time and 
space about a world he has made. 

A true understanding and personal application by the personal 
subject- -man- -of God's truth about his salvation accomplished in his 
created world- -theobject- -as revealed in God's written revelation can 
only really be experienced when a meaningful grammatical historical 
exegesis of the very text of Scripture has been performed. Further, 
it is to be realized that this exegesis is to be done by the modern 
interpreter under the guidance of the personal divine Holy Spirit, with 
the prayer that the God who communicated his eternal truth in inerrant 
form to man in ages past will make that same propositional truth mean- 
ingful to the Christian today. 



1. W. F. Arndt and F. W. Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon (Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1963) and H. G. Liddell and Robert 
Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 
1953). Compare also the discussion of James M. Robinson, "Her- 
meneutic Since Barth" in The New Hermeneutic, J. M. Robinson and 
J. B. Cobb, Jr. ed. (New York: Harper and Row, 1964), pp. 1-12. 

2. More about this will be discussed later. 

3. Robinson, op. cit. , p. 13. 

4. Heinz Kimmerle, "Hermeneutical Theory or Ontological Hermeneu- 
tics," in History and Hermeneutic , Robert W. Funk, ed. (New York: 
Harper and Row, 1967), p. 121. 

5. Robinson, op. cit . , p. 9. 

6. See John W. Montgomery, "Toward A Christian Philosophy of His- 
tory" in Jesus of Nazareth: Saviour and Lord , C. F. H. Henry, ed. 
(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1966), p. 230. 

7. John Dillenberger, "On Broadening the New Hermeneutic" in The New 
Hermeneutic , pp. 162, 163. 

8. Robinson, op. cit ., pp. 40, 41. 

9. Ernst Fuchs, "Response to the American Discussion," in The New 
Hermeneutic , p. 234. 

10. Underlining has been added by the author of the present article. 

11. John Dillenberger, op. cit., p. 156. 

12. The emphasis has been added. 

13. Robert W. Funk, "The Hermeneutical Problem and Historical Criti- 
cism, " in The New Hermeneutic , p. 193. 

14. Fuchs, op. cit ., p. 238. 

15. Martin H. Woudstra, Calvin's Dying Bequest to the Church (Grand 
Rapids: Calvin Theological Seminary, 1960), pp. 8, 9. 

16. Discussion in response regarding Old Testament quotations in the 
New is taken up below. 


17. Dillenberger, op. cit . , pp. 156, 157. 

18. Carl E. Braaten, Introduction in Martin Kahler's, The So -Called 
Historical Jesus and the Historic Biblical Christ (Philadelphia: For- 
tress Press, 1964), p. 21. 

19. Will Herberg, "Five Meanings of the Word 'Historical,'" in The 
Christian Scholar , XLVII (Winter, 1964), 327-30. 

20. Heinrich Ott, "The Historical Jesus and the Ontology of History, " 
in The Historical Jesus and the Kerygmatic Christ , Carl E. Braaten 
and Roy A. Harrisville, tr. and ed. (New York: Abingdon Press, 
1964), p. 170. 

21. Wolfgang Pannenberg, "Hermeneutics and Universal History, " in 
History and Hermeneutic, Robert W. Funk, ed. (New York: Harper 
and Row, 1967), p. 125. 

22. James M. Robinson, The New Hermeneutic , pp. 23, 24. 

23. Rudolf Bultmann, Chr. W. XXXVI, (1922), 372 f. through J. M. Rob- 
inson, The New Hermeneutic , p. 31. 

24. Francis A. Schaeffer, Lecture at Covenant Seminary, St. Louis, 
March 5, 1971. 

25. Ernst Fuchs himself says that "The New Testament itself is a text- 
book in hermeneutic, " but by this he means it "teaches a hermeneu- 
tic of faith." The New Hermeneutic , p. 141. 

26. Francis A. Schaeffer, Lecture, Covenant Seminary, St. Louis, 
March 5, 1971. 

27. See nomos , Arndt and Gingrich, op. cit . 

28. Robinson, The New Hermeneutic , p. 77. 

29. John B. Cobb, The New Hermeneutic , p. 227. 

30. Robinson, The New Hermeneutic , p. 15. 

31. Ernst Fuchs, The New Hermeneutic , p. 237. 

32. John Dillenberger, The New Hermeneutic , p. 154. 

33. Cf. Robinson, The New Hermeneutic, pp. 20-21. 



Professor of Practical Theology 

Talbot Theological Seminary 

Luke 24:48, 49 is a sobering passage for all who would engage 
in the work of the Lord. 

You are witnesses of these things. And behold, I am 
sending forth the promise of My Father upon you; but 
you are to stay in the city until you are clothed with 
power from on high. 

We know that this was written in anticipation of Pentecost but the 
implications go far beyond. Jesus is saying that no ministry should be 
attempted without the accompanying presence of the Spirit. The word 
"clothed" gives the idea of "covered" or "engulfed" by the Spirit. The 
disciples needed to be convinced that no sermon could be preached, no 
plans made, no church started with a dependence upon their own ingenuity. 

Those anticipating a life of service for Christ need to learn the 
same lesson. You who have had seminary are especially vulnerable to 
the suggestion that since you are equipped with Greek and Hebrew, a 
knowledge of the Bible, theology, church history, and homiletics you are 
prepared to make an impact on the world. Until you are absolutely con- 
vinced of Christ's words which indicate that you are helpless unless 
"clothed with power from on high" you are not adequately prepared in 
spite of an M. Div. 

A "candid camera" television program portrayed a scene in which 
a motor had been removed from a car. The car was towed to the top 
of a hill and allowed to coast down the hill and into a service station 

The material in this article was originally presented at Grace Theological 
Seminary as comprising the Louis S. Bauman Lectures, February, 1973. 



with a lady from the program steering it. When the attendant checked 
the oil you can imagine his amazement at making the "missing motor" 
discovery. With disbelief and frustration he exclaimed, "Lady, you have 
no motor!" It is just as foolish for the disciples or us to think of min- 
istering without God's power as to drive a car without a motor. The 
Lord was trying to convince the disciples of their helplessness apart 
from the Holy Spirit. 

Why is the Holy Spirit essential to an effective ministry? In the 
first three chapters of I Corinthians, three miracle works are men- 
tioned, none of which can be accomplished except by the Spirit of God. 

I. The work of establishing men of faith. 

And my message and my preaching were not in per- 
suasive words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the 
Spirit and of power, that your faith should not rest on 
the wisdom of men, but on the power of God (I Cor- 
inthians 2:4, 5). 

Men who have a solid foundation for faith do not arrive at that 
point by clever arguments or the winsome personality of the preacher 
but by the application of the truths of God by the Spirit of God. 

What are these truths that make dependence on the Spirit essen- 
tial? (1) Man must be convinced that the revelation of God is more 
valid than the wisdom of men. "The world through its wisdom did not 
come to know God" (I Cor. 1:21). But they never seem to get discouraged 
in their effort! Unless the Spirit of God convinces men of the message 
of the cross it still is "to Gentiles foolishness. " (2) Man must realize 
that the greatest sign of God's power was the cross. The Jew thought 
it was a sign of weakness and looked for further outward confirming evi- 
dence (1:22). But each time the message is preached and men are trans- 
formed thereby, it confirms the fact that the Holy Spirit is at work 
applying the message. We cannot do that in our strength. Canon Evans 
speaking of the wisdom and power of the cross declares: 

Two great evils consequent upon the fall are weakness 
and ignorance. Nothing is more worthy therefore of 
divine benevolence and wisdom than to allow that one 
race (the Jews) should discover the helplessness of man, 
and another (the Greeks) his ignorance. The Jew went 
upon the first of these searches. He asked for a man- 
ifestation of power. He had no conception of philoso- 
phy, of principles, of general laws. He looked for the 
finger, the hand, the arm of the Almighty. The Greek 


went upon the second search. He endeavoured to explain 
phenomena by philosophic theory. The intended result 
of the Mosaic Law was --'the things which I would do, I 
cannot do.' The result of Greek philosophy was --'the 
things which I would know, I cannot discover. ' Christ 
satisfied both these wants, thus experimentally realized; 
and though the ignominy of the crucifixion made Him to 
the unbelieving Jew a stumbling-block and to the unbeliev- 
ing Greek an absurdity, yet He was to the believing Jew 
God's power and to the believing Greek God's wisdom. 
And more than this, He was both to both: for by send- 
ing His Son into the world God purposed to furnish the 
believing Jew, not only with the strength which he craved, 
but with strength also, to satisfy in each case, not 
merely a want felt, but also a want equally real, al- 
though unfelt. Thus God, while He allowed men to dis- 
cover only half their misery, enabled them in His bounty 
to realize their whole happiness. 

We must believe that the Holy Spirit on the basis of the message 
of the cross can enter the human personality and give him a new mind 
and a new will. Henry Ward Beecher testified that "I should as soon 
attempt to raise flowers if there were no atmosphere, or produce fruits 
if there were neither light nor heat, as to regenerate men if I did not 
believe there was a Holy Ghost. "^ John Brown observed, "When men 
surrender thenselves to the Spirit of God, they will learn more concern- 
ing God and Christ and the Atonement and Immortality in a week, than 
they would learn in a lifetime, apart from the Spirit. "^ 

II. The work of teaching. 

The work of transforming men requires the Holy Spirit. The 
ministry of discovering and imparting the truths of God likewise demands 
a dependence upon Him. 

One of my unbelieving professors, commenting on the evidences 
for the truth of Christianity, compared it to a building with three walls 
and suggested that some imagine a fourth and accept it as true. He could 
not. This illustrates the need for the Holy Spirit as stated in I Corin- 
thians 2:9-13: 

But just as it is written, 'Things which eye has not seen 
and ear has not heard, and which have not entered the 
heart of man, all that God has prepared for those who 
love Him. ' For to us God revealed them through the 
Spirit; for the Spirit searches all things even the depths 


of God. For who among men knows the thoughts of a 
man except the spirit of the man, which is in him? 
Even so the thoughts of God no one knows except the 
Spirit of God. Now we have received, not the spirit 
of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we 
might know the things freely given to us by God, which 
things we also speak, not in words taught by human 
wisdom, but in those taught by the Spirit, combining 
spiritual thoughts with spiritual words. 

"That which God has prepared for those who love him" is not 
referring to the future state but to that which we can experience now. 
"For to us God revealed them through the Spirit ..." (v. 10a). 

What are the truths that the Holy Spirit would teach? Notice 1:30: 
"but by His doing you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom 
from God, and righteousness and sanctification, and redemption. " He 
wants to impress us with the value of that which God wants to impart 
to us. A salesman will try to demonstrate all the good qualities of 
his product. That is what the Holy Spirit does for us. He extols that 
which Christ offers that we might receive full benefit from all He accom- 
plished for us at the cross. Not only does the Holy Spirit help us to 
understand truth but to impart it. "Which things we also speak, not in 
words taught by human wisdom, but in those taught by the Spirit, com- 
bining spiritual thought with spiritual words" (I Cor. 2:13). 

The teacher of the Word of God must depend upon the Spirit of 
God to communicate God's thoughts properly. 

We may take a trip to Europe and upon returning be asked, "What 
was it like?" Any answer you would give would present a very limited 
exposure as to what Europe was like. There are those who would hes- 
itate to describe Europe who seem to have no hesitation in giving the 
last word in relation to Christ and are seemingly satisfied that they have 
communicated adequately all there is to know. The Holy Spirit desires 
to uncover new truths and to give us the words to express them. 

III. The work of building. 

God is engaged in building His church. God uses men to do it. 
But much as we need the Holy Spirit to transform men and teach so we 
need the Holy Spirit to build God's Church. 

For you are still fleshly. For since there is jealousy 
and strife among you, are you not fleshly, and are you 
not walking like mere men? For when one says, "I 


am of Paul," and another, "I am of Apollos, " are you 
not mere men? I planted, Apollos watered, but God was 
causing the growth. For we are God's fellow -workers; 
you are God's field, God's building (I Cor. 3:3, 4, 6, 

The problem with the church at Corinth was that they were walk- 
ing as mere men, not spiritually clothed men. T)he church cannot be 
built that way. 

The Spirit of God is necessary to mold workers into a team so 
no one is concerned about who gets the credit. The conflict in that 
church was over loyalty to leaders but jealousy is just as often found 
among leaders. The Lord gave some good advice on this problem as 
the disciples clamored for prominence. 

And they said to Him, "Grant that we may sit in Your 
glory, one on Your right, and one on Your left. "... 
And hearing this, the ten began to feel indignant toward 
James and John. And calling them to Himself, Jesus 
said to them, "You know that those who are recognized 
as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their 
great men exercise authority over them. But it is not 
so among you, but whoever wishes to become great 
among you shall be your servant; and whoever wishes 
to be first among you shall be slave of all. For even 
the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, 
and to give His life a ransom for many" (Mark 10:37, 

Man by his fleshly nature wants to be noticed, wants to be heard 
and wants full credit for any accomplishment. A successful college bas- 
ketball coach was asked what was the greatest problem faced. He said 
it was to bring the former high school stars from an "I" to a "We" 
concept. This is the ministry of the Holy Spirit in building the body 
of Christ. 

If we insist on giving glory to men instead of Christ we are des- 
tined to build that which cannot last, that is, the "wood, hay, and straw" 
(3:12). It is sad to see how many churches apparently are being built 
with man in the important place and the evidence is that many encourage 
it and delight in it. That which is permanent, the "gold, silver, precious 
stones" (3:12), is built stressing the importance of allegiance to Christ. 
This person will last though leadership may change and, at times, fail. 

The chapter concludes, "So then let no one boast in men. For 
all things belong to you, whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas or the world 


or life or death or things present or things to come; all things belong 
to you, and you belong to Christ; and Christ belongs to God" (I Cor. 

The Holy Spirit wants to use us to transform men, to teach others 
and to build His church. But so often self gets in the way. 

Recently I installed a lawn sprinkler system. When one of the 
lines had been hooked up it was turned on in order to test it. The sad 
discovery was made that each sprinkler only sprayed about a three inch 
circle. The water company was called to test the pressure. Their in- 
struments revealed a loss of 75% of the pressure from the street to the 
house which necessitated the installation of a new pipe. "When this was 
completed the system worked with a full flow of water. 

The power of the Spirit is present in the life of every Christian 
but often He finds our lines clogged with all manner of fleshly desires 
so that a full flow of His power is impossible. Drastic action is in 
order to allow Him free course. We should never be satisfied in our 
ministries to operate as "mere men. " 

Elizabeth O'Conner describes the need for Spirit led men as she 

The church- in-the-house is a first-century church struc- 
ture which can have meaning in the twentieth century, 
but there is no house congregation unless there are 
persons infused by the Holy Spirit to go out under its 
guidance. We can discover the twentieth-century struc- 
tures, learn modern techniques, and originate challeng- 
ing programs, but these in themselves are not enough. 
They may win people to our organizations, but not to 
the living Christ. For this we need men and women 
abandoned to God, contagiously radiant because in their 
inner lives a conversation goes on with Him who is 
Lord. They are the people who fill one's soul with a 
free, spontaneous worship. Thoughts begin to hurdle 
the usual boundaries, and you wonder why you ever 
doubted. In their presence your spirit has wings; you 
sense the very presence of God. 4 



Rev. Canon Evans, "Corinthians" in New Testament vol. Ill of 
The Holy Bible Commentary (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 
1890), pp. 250-51. 

Henry Ward Beecher, The Encyclopedia of Religious Quotations 
(Westwood, N. J. : Fleming H. Revell Company, 1965), p. 228. 

John Brown, The Encyclopedia of Religious Quotations (Westwood, 
N. J. : Fleming H. Revell Company, 1965), p. 228. 

Elizabeth O'Conner, The Call To Commitment. 



Kent, Jr. BMH Books, Winona Lake, Indiana or Baker Book House, Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, co-publishers, 1972. 202 pp. $3.95. 

This new volume on Acts is not intended as an exhaustive verse - 
by-verse commentary but is an adequate paragraph-by-paragraph treatment 
of Acts which traces the grand movement of the Gospel as pictured by 
Luke, with special attention to its crucial moments. The author aims 
"to place the thrilling story of Acts against its historical background" 
(Preface). He divides Acts into three major divisions, the Church in 
Jerusalem (1-7), the early growth in Palestine and Syria (8-12), and the 
westward advance (13-28). The entire contents of Acts are divided into 
thirteen chapters according to subject matter. 

A valuable feature of the volume is the inclusion of 25 pictures 
and diagrams at appropriate places. Each of his thirteen chapters is 
appropriately outlined and the inclusion of the outline in the text makes 
for easy reading. Questions for further discussion follow each of these 

The discussion is non-technical and is well suited for the use of 
the pastor or the diligent lay student. The author, professor of Greek 
and New Testament at Grace Theological Seminary, has taught Acts for 
the past 21 years, and this volume embodies the essence of his studies. 
The approach is conservative and orthodox. A closely printed Bibliog- 
raphy of over four pages concludes the volume. A valuable addition 
for any library. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 

Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 


Lloyd-Jones. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Papids, Michigan, 
1971. 370 pp. $6.95. 

This book is the result of the author's series on the book of Romans 
while ministering at Westminster Chapel. He preached this epistle for 
some thirteen years. This fact alone will encourage those preachers who 
are cautious of "long" sermon series. 



Because this book follows a sermonic and expositional design it 
will be difficult to use as a ready reference tool in the study of Romans. 
It will provide some help to the preacher who is planning a study of 
Romans, particularly a study of chapter five. I would submit that this 
work will stimulate your thinking as you approach this theological treatise 
of the Apostle Paul. You may not always agree with the writer, but he 
will make you think. 

Lloyd -Jones repeatedly objects to the understanding of chapters 
five through eight as developing the believer's sanctification. Concerning 
this the author says, "He goes straight from justification to glorification. 
He does not say a word about sanctification. " (p. 6) 

The Scofield Reference Bible comes under fire as the exposition 
develops, as do other interpreters. Dr. Lloyd-Jones rejects the inter- 
pretation that verses one through eleven reveal the results of justification 
(pp. 2-3). He also objects to the suggestion that verses twelve through 
twenty-one are an "interruption" in Paul's argument as Scofield suggests 
(p. 172). 

The author's basic premise concerning chapter five is that, "the 
Apostle is concerned primarily, from this point onwards [5: Iff], to show 
the absolute character, the fullness and the finality of the salvation which 
comes to us in the way he has already described, namely as the result of 
justification by faith" (p. 3), thus the subtitle, "Assurance. " The re- 
maining 367 pages develop this thesis. 

There are those areas, as with all commentaries, with which we 
may disagree. The author refers often to a "covenant" made with Adam, 
but never elaborates this. One might also question the author's position 
with regard to "Covenant Theology. " 

There are also those areas that are refreshing. The reader will 
appreciate the author's discussion of "faith" and "reason" (pp. 211-212). 
The author's outline of the method of salvation (pp. 335-336) was chal- 
lenging food for thought. 

I have read a couple of Dr. Lloyd-Jones' previous works and 
now this exposition of chapter five of Romans. My reaction remains 
the same! If you desire a book that is challenging, refreshing, and 
inspiring then I would suggest one by D. Martyn Lloyd- Jones. The 
present work under consideration is no exception to that feeling. 

Bruce A. Pickell 

Palisade Baptist Church 
Silver Bay, Minnesota 


PERSONALITIES AROUND PAUL. b Y D - Edmond Hiebert. Moody Press, 

Chicago, 1973. 270 pp. $5.95. 

This helpful volume presents in a well-organized fashion all of 
the Biblical information regarding the various associates of the apostle 
Paul. The book is arranged in three sections: Prominent Personalities, 
Lesser Lights, and All the Others Names and Unnamed. Twenty-five 
persons are considered at length in the first two sections of the book. 
Many of these individuals emerge from their relative obscurity into the 
light of center stage as real figures in the early days of the church. 
The author shows a fine sensitivity to their personalities as revealed 
by the admittedly meager data available. 

Interesting comments are made on Philemon (p. 190) and the in- 
stitution of slavery (p. 193). He decides that Phoebe was an official 
deaconess (p. 198). Acts 15 is identified with Galatians 2 (p. 54 foot- 
note, p. 58). 

The format and typography are pleasing, and marred bv only a 
few errors. "Cyprus" is misspelled in the heading on page 48. The 
name of Porcius Festus is misspelled on page 226 (but spelled correctly 
in the cross reference on page 230). Footnotes (chiefly documentation) 
are placed at the end of the book, with other notes being placed at the 
bottom of each page. This practice is obviously favored by publishers 
for economic reasons, but it is irksome to the reader who is interested 
in noting the authorities being cited. 

The author is professor of Greek and New Testament at the Men- 
nonite Brethren Biblical Seminary at Fresno, California. Among his 
other writings are An Introduction to the Pauline Epistles , An Introduc - 
tion to the Non-Pauline Epistles , and an important new commentary, The 
Thessalonian Epistles . 

Homer A. Kent, Jr. 
Grace Theological Seminary 


William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 
199 pp. $3.45 paper. 

The translator, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, states appropriately in his 
preface: "It is not a scientific commentary. . . Nor is it theological 
in the sense of rigorous dogmatic enquiry. It simply consists of read- 
ings and meditations in the Second Book of Kings with a concluding med- 
itation on inutility. " 


Ellul has chosen seven passages focusing on the prophetical min- 
istry as it related to the contemporary scene and the lives of selected 
men. These men are: Naaman, Joram, Hazael, Jehu, Ahaz, Rabshakeh, 
and Hezekiah. Throughout each, sometimes rambling meditation, there 
are gems of philosophical insight and nuggets to ponder. 

In the sixth chapter the reading is 2 Kings 18:17-37. This is 
Rabshakeh's political propaganda speech. It is likened by Ellul to the 
world's current attacks on the Church, briefly outlined as follows: First, 
"a reminder of what is needed in political action, namely, sagacity and 
force, calculation and power. " (p. 146) Second, Rabshakeh points to 
Hezekiah's sin in allying with the king of Egypt. Third, he promises 
great benefits if the people of Jerusalem will cooperate with him. Fourth, 
he misinterprets the religious action of Hezekiah in removing the altars, 
as alienating his God. Fifth, he likens God to the gods of other nations, 
totally helpless, and even claims to have God's support for his attack on 
Jerusalem. With these means Rabshakeh has tried to separate the people 
from their leaders, promised the people that he alone can make them 
happy, and claimed that God couldn't deliver His people even if He wanted 

The parallel situation today as the world and the Devil attack the 
Church of Christ is self-evident. And only as the Church responds as 
did the people of Jerusalem and their godly king with "silence, repen- 
tance, and prayer" (p. 161) will we experience deliverance from God. 

It is, I believe, Ellul's thesis, although not specifically stated as 
such, that God has determined political actions. When man feels he is 
in charge he is merely humanistically fulfilling God's purpose, though 
that may be the last thing he wants to actually do. It is in Ellul's words: 
"God's judgment on politics." (p. 15) 

The concluding nine pages of the book, "Meditation on Inutility" 
is very well written. Here Ellul retraces Solomon's experience revealed 
in Ecclesiastes and concludes that everything is "useless service. " (pp. 
191-195) Tilling the soil, works, prayer, wisdom, preaching all use- 
less service. However, this is "no excuse for inaction." It is neces- 
sarily the attitude which we must each take toward our own effort. God 
is not interested in our success. "To be controlled by utility and the 
pursuit of efficacy, ... to want to attain results is necessarily not to 
be a witness to the free gift of God. " (p. 197) "To do a gratuitous, 
ineffective, and useless act is the first sign of our freedom and perhaps 
the last. " (p. 198) If we are truly bringing honor and glory to God, 
then how can it fall on us? God does not share His glory or preeminence. 
Is this a profound word for our "success enslaved" age? May we as 
Christians be careful to Whom goes the glory. 

William N. Fay 
Sentani, West Irian, Indonesia 


JIW NAME IS LEGION. By Glenna Henderson. Bethany Fellowship, Minneap- 
olis, Minnesota, 1972. 128 pp. $3.95. 

Mrs. Glenna Henderson, a member of an American Lutheran 
church in North Dakota, claims to have been possessed by demons for 
over thirty years. According to the demonic testimonies given from her, 
one demon entered her during babyhood, another at three years old and 
others later in life. Even after she professed Christ as Savior, Mrs. 
Henderson suffered this possession off and on for over a year. Her 
Lutheran pastor and his wife (Rev. and Mrs. Robert E. Nichelson) cast 
out the demons. And though Mrs. Henderson was repossessed by demons 
several times, the parsonage couple was able repeatedlv to deliver her. 

The author was not possessed by the actual demon named Legion 
(Mk. 5:1-9). The book title might lead the reader to this conclusion. 
But she names several of her controlling demons such as Littimus, 
Charlie-named-after-a-King, Reuben and an unnamed female demon (p. 
56). Under their control, Mrs. Henderson expressed herself in self- 
pity, harsh conduct and suicidal intentions. She experienced terrible 
dreams thought to be from Satan, three close calls with death or seri- 
ous injury and three strange periods of blindness. She felt as if some- 
one was trying to get rid of her. But since her deliverance, she no 
longer wears glasses, experiences moods of self-pity or feels deep hatred 
toward others. In that she prayed for the baptism of the Spirit (p. 16), 
spoke in tongues (p. 19) and experienced a healed finger (pp. 20, 21), 
the reader would conclude that she embraces the neo-pentecostal view- 

Her autobiography of 113 pages is written in an interesting, free- 
flowing style. In her "Afterword" (pp. 114-119), Kenneth Copeland de- 
fends the possibility of a Christian being demon possessed. The identity 
of Mr. Copeland is not disclosed by the author or the publisher. In the 
Appendix (pp. 120-128), Pastor Nichelson appeals for Christians to be- 
come involved in the deliverance ministry (Mk. 16:17) and outlines the 
steps in delivering people from demons. 

Mrs. Henderson aids her husband in their North Dakota farming 
operation. She is the mother of six children and a leader in both civic 
and church activities. The demonic material in this book closely resem- 
bles other written, verbal and taped information brought to the reviewer's 

James H. Gabhart 

First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 


Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 303 pp. $5.95. 

This scholarly production is from the pen of the professor of 
Greek and New Testament at Grace Theological Seminary. It is a thor- 
oughly competent and up-to-date interpretation of this difficult New Tes- 
tament book. The introduction presents a brief survey of the chief cri- 
tical problems concerning Hebrews. Kent wisely leaves open the ques- 
tion of authorship, favors the view that the readers lived in Rome, and 
holds to a date "in the sixties. " A threefold outline of the book of He- 
brews is adopted: Doctrinal discussion (1:1-10:18); Practical exhorta- 
tions (10:19-13:17); Personal instructions (13:18-25). The author's literal 
translation of the epistle, forming the basis for the verse by verse in- 
terpretation, is important as bringing out the exact force of the original. 

The commentary strikes a happy medium between being exces- 
sively detailed and voluminous and being too compressed and sketchy. 
The commentary gives a clear and accurate interpretation of the text in 
the light of the original. Greek terms, always transliterated, are con- 
servatively introduced, where needed to make clear the point. The stress 
is upon the careful unfolding of the meaning of the text; practical and 
homiletical applications are sparingly introduced. Critical problems are 
judiciously handled. 

No one writing a commentary on the book of Hebrews can expect 
to win complete agreement on all the problems that he must face. This 
volume will be no exception, but the author fairly states the different 
views and clearly presents his reasons for his own position. A good 
example is the treatment of the difficult "warning" in 6:4-6. After a 
careful exegesis of the verses (pp. 107-111), Kent presents four views 
that have been advocated (pp. 111-115). His own view, that the passage 
presents a hypothetical case to illustrate the folly of apostasy, will not 
achieve uniform agreement from the readers. 

In a few instances a significant term is passed over without com- 
ment. Thus under 2:11 no explanation of "sanctify" is given, but the 
term is given full treatment in connection with 10:10, 14. In the dis- 
cussion of 8:2 no consideration is given to the meaning of the term ren- 
dered "minister." The valuable discussion concerning Melchizedek in- 
cluded the problem, in connection with 7:4, as to whether Melchizedek 
was a "theophany" (a view Kent rightly rejects), but one wishes he might 
have said something about other claims concerning Melchizedek, such 
as, was he Shem? 

The volume is attractively printed and remarkably free from typo- 
graphical errors. In the translation on p. 115 the pronoun "you" seems 


to have been dropped out, and on page 218, note 25, eis to is printed 
as one word. Pages 270 and 271 appear in reverse order. The nine- 
teen illustrations included at appropriate places throughout the book add 
to its appeal. 

The extensive research of the author in the writing of this com- 
mentary is reflected in the seven page bibliography. It is based on care- 
ful exegesis of the biblical text, and the conservative conclusions of the 
author reflect mature consideration and careful scholarship. A number 
of commentaries on Hebrews have recently appeared, but this one may 
be recommended as one of the best for the pastor and the serious Bible 
student. Even though the student may have several commentaries on 
Hebrews on his shelves, this one will prove to be a valued and worthy 
addition. Get it and diligently use it! 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 
Fresno, California 

RE-ENTRY . By John Wesley White. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand 

Rapids, Michigan, 1971. 189 pp. $.95. 

Jam-packed with facts--this observation describes well this book. 
These facts are in the form of currentnews events which parallel Christ's 
second coming. Unlike other books, the cited events come right up to 
the year of publication, 1971. The wide scope of discussion covers cur- 
rent theology, science, society, philosophy, Christendom and politics in 
relation to the Second Coming. The overall impression of the book is 
that Christians have the answer for the war-torn, sinful world. Since 
the return of Christ must be close, believers should press on with the 

No attempt is made by Dr. White to document hundreds of facts , 
including quotes. No doubt a book twice this size would be required for 
such documentation. The author believes in a pretribulation, premillen- 
nial rapture of the Church. However, his thoughts and quotes often con- 
fuse the rapture of the Church and the return of Christ to earth. He 
quotes Roman Catholic prominents such as popes and cardinals on their 
firm (?) hope in Christ's literal return. The way of salvation is pre- 
sented by example of Cardinal Cushing (p. 107). This will disillusion 
the untaught readers. The reviewer wonders if some of the cited famous 
entertainers as Pat Boone really know what it is all about! Dr. White 
puts more meaning into some events than is prophetically possible. But 
overall, the book is inspiring and informative. Should this work be re- 
printed, Nebuchadnezzar's siege would be 586 B. C. and not 486 B. C. 
(p. 134, par. 2). 


The two indices at the back of the book are the cited Scripture 
passages and the personages. The text of this book was given as ad- 
dresses at the People's Church in Toronto. Dr. White is a native of 
Canada, chancellor of Richmond College in Toronto and an associate 
evangelist of Billy Graham. 

James H. Gabhart 

First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 


Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 160 pp. $2.95 paper. 

It is the thesis of this book that not due to hardness of heart, but 
rather to specific kinds of neglect, some peoples have been resistant to 
the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Particularly: 1) the neglect of preaching 
and Bible translation in the people's vernacular language, 2) the neglect 
of forming churches where they are not a minority group within that 
church, 3) the neglect of providing their church leadership from among 
themselves, not an outside group, and 4) the neglect of preserving their 
culture where not in direct conflict with the Scripture. 

The author relates these issues to the "resistant" Hakka people 
of Taiwan. He shows how initially the Gospel was encouragingly received 
by the Hakkas. However, because of several unfortunate decisions, this 
response was stifled. First came the "one language policy" which forced 
the Hakkas into the majority Minnan language mold. No Hakka Bible or 
Hymnal was published until almost a century after work among the Hakkas 
began. Second came the policy of integration into Minnan churches with 
Minnan leadership. Thirdly was the abject neglect of their "peculiar 
people consciousness" which was traced back to their origin as a separ- 
ate people. In fact this was probably the underlying cause resulting in 
the failure of the preceeding two policies. To confuse Biblical Chris- 
tianity with specific cultural adaptation is serious indeed. Certainly the 
example of the Biblical resolution of Gentile versus Jewish cultures pro- 
trayed in Acts 15 and Galatians 2 should convince the Biblically oriented 
to the fallacy of making Christian conversion synonymous with cultural 
change. As Liao has succinctly stated: "A Hakka can be a good Chris- 
tian and a good Hakka at the same time. " (p. 103) 

The application of the thesis of the book will not be easy. It 
demands "separate but equal" treatment in reaching distinct groups of 
people for Christ. It means more missionary personnel to do the ver- 
nacular language work rather than amalgamating into the "one language 
policy" or into a trade language or official language. It means greater 
sensitivity on the part of missionaries to the culture of the particular 


people with whom they are working. It means that the church to be 
formed must be indigenous, not a copy from home or someplace else. 
If we on the mission field and those supporting us at home are not con- 
vinced these things are true and willing to spend ourselves to their ful- 
fillment, then we have no right to label some as "resistant" to the Truth. 
What about the world of Islam? Resistant? Or merely neglected for 
centuries with a vernacular Bible? 

How does the Church begin again? Will it be further neglected? 
Or will it begin to see people in the light of their own peculiarity and 
minister the Word appropriately? 

William N. Fay 

Sentani, West Irian, Indonesia 

THE NEW COMPACT TOPICAL BIBLE. Compiled by Gary Wharton. Zonder- 
van Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 536 pp. $4.95. 

If some reader is looking for a gift at graduation, birthday or 
Christmas time, he need look no farther. This compact, comprehensive, 
handy-size, topical Bible would be just the thing! A topical Bible con- 
tains organized Scripture verses by subjects or topics, including verses 
with concepts as well as those containing the exact words. This work 
has over 100, 000 references in almost 7,000 various topics. It covers 
persons, places, things and events of the Bible. Because these are de- 
fined, this topical Bible performs the services of a Bible dictionary. 
Additional features are cross-references, synonyms and outlines. This 
is the compact edition of The Zondervan Topical Bible . 

Gary Wharton did not actually write this work, but he compiled 
it. The attractive flyleaf of his book does not note this fact. However, 
the reader will not go far until he recognizes other works such as Revell's 
The New Topical Text Book . Nevertheless, the latter named volume is 
no match for the book under review. Some of the excellent sections are 
the "Dead Sea Scrolls" (p. 114), "Jesus the Christ" (pp. 246-263) and 
"Minister" (pp. 317-320). Additional study books will be required for 
such topics as feasts, judgments, eternal life, man or murder. The 
topics of "Daystar" (p. 113) and "Immanuel" (p. 217) are not explained 
as being related to Christ (Heb. "almah" of Is. 7:14 is better "virgin" 
than "maiden," p. 217). This work is part of Zondervan's "Bible Hand- 
book Series" and could profitably be in every home. 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 



verson. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 
120 pp. $3.95. 

Dr. Richard C. Halverson changed his thinking about the church. 
He believes that the local churches are not reaching the mainstream of 
people with the Gospel. The average pastor is busy building his "insti- 
tution" rather than providing an outreach to the community. The human, 
social and spiritual needs of the community are great. Therefore, the 
pastor should develop his people to meet these needs. The church should 
"think community. " 

The author sees a "biblical" church as one which is people -centered 
rather than program-centered. Concerned people will have a people - 
centered program. The pastor will develop his people to serve Christ 
between Sundays. This service will be the work of the church. Church 
work or service done on Sunday at church is necessary and profitable. 
But the greater work for Christ is accomplished by God's people Mon- 
day through Saturday in daily life. He figures that ten percent of his 
congregation can carry on the church work. But one hundred percent of 
his people are needed to work for Christ during the week. Each and 
every person should be engaged as an evangelist. 

The casual reader browsing in a book store probably would not 
choose this book. The large type, some eighty-three actual printed 
pages, soaring cost of $3.95 and quotations from the Revised Standard 
Version might cause that reader to ignore this book. But this work has 
things worth reading. Dr. Halverson is the pastor of the Fourth Pres- 
byterian Church of Washington, D. C. , Associate Executive Director of 
International Christian Leadership, Inc. and the author of seven books. 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 

THE COMPELLING 1NVWELL1NG. By James H. Jauncey. Moody Press, 

Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 127 pp. $1.95 paper. 

This slender volume offers a fresh and forceful exposition of the 
teaching of Jesus in John 15, centering in the promised indwelling of the 
Holy Spirit in each believer. This indwelling is the essence of the trans- 
forming power of Christianity. His presence generates "the kind of power 
that produces abundant living. Our success is to depend not on our own 
puny efforts but on the degree of our association with Him" (p. 11). 

The volume is not a systematic exegesis of the text but offers a 
running exposition of its teaching with practical application to life. The 


style is fresh and arresting. Various phrases and illustrations reflect 
the scientific training the author has had. It contains many valuable 

The teaching is generally clear and effective, but there are a few 
statements which raise questions as being theologically imprecise. For 
example, on pages 26-27 he asserts that the pruning which Christians 
undergo "was necessary even for Christ. " On page 28 he declares that 
"death itself is part of the pruning. It cuts away the limitations of the 
physical body so that the infinite fruitfulness of eternity may become 
possible. " But does that mean that the disembodied state is necessary 
for that realization? What about that generation of believers at the Rap- 
ture who will never undergo that "pruning" through physical death? On 
page 46 we are told, "The sad thing is that Calvary never stops, because 
God continues to suffer. " While in the context the statement is under- 
standable, it is open to misunderstanding. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 

liams. Kregel, reprinted 1971. 1058 pp. $11.95. 

The reader quickly senses that this commentary is not a dupli- 
cation or rehash of several other works. It is fresh, spiritual and in- 
spiring. The devotional flavor is refreshing. Williams knew the Scrip- 
tures and he knew Him of whom the Scriptures speak. Kregel is to be 
commended for republishing this commentary which first appeared in 

George Williams was an outstanding Christian of the 19th century. 
He knew seven languages including Hebrew and Greek. He held high the 
inspiration, authority and purity of the Scriptures. He could see Christ 
all through the Bible. In fact, he labeled his introduction to the Psalms, 
"The Psalms and the Messiah." He expounded on typology, e.g. the 
Red Sea and the Jordan River as types of the death and resurrection of 
Christ. He tackled problems such as the conflict on the numbering of 
fighting men between the accounts of 2 Samuel 24:9 and 1 Chronicles 
21:5. He resolves the conflict by stating that the 1, 100, 000 soldiers of 
the 1 Chronicle passage included 300,000 young men not counted as "val- 
iant" with the 800,000 soldiers of the 2 Samuel passage. He wrote about 
the rapture, an anti-christ and the millennium. However, his eschatol- 
ogy does not have the precision in dispensational lines of the 20th century. 

This reprint is well done with clear type, double columns and 
distinct divisions. The binding is beautiful. The chapters are not sub- 


divided, but it is relatively easy to find the comments on a specific verse. 
There are no footnotes or quotes. It is not possible to have a comment 
on each verse in a work of this size. In a couple places the reviewer 
wondered if some notations were improperly placed (Gen. 50, pars. 6, 
7, p. 43; Eph. 6, par. 3, p. 928; Ps. 4, pp. 300, 301). 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 

E. Warner. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 362 
pp. $5.95. 

The double title adequately indicates the contents of this attrac- 
tively printed volume. Forty-four people are included- -six of them still 
alive at time of publication. Those included represent "various profes- 
sions, diverse religious and national backgrounds, different social and 
educational levels, and a time period stretching from the fifth century 
B.C. to the present. There are politicians, preachers, scientists, enter- 
tainers, writers, editors, a pilot, a missionary, soldiers, inventors, a 
nurse, and others who in a great measure have helped shape history" 
(p. 7). The entries are alphabetically listed, from Aesop to Woodrow 
Wilson. A thumbnail biography stands at the head of each entry. The 
material under each name is in two parts, stories about the person (ex- 
cept in the case of Aesop, Longfellow, and Thomas a Kempis), and quoted 
statements from the individual. The entries are conveniently brief, from 
a single sentence quotation to a story of about half a page. A subject 
index greatly facilitates ready access to its contents. 

It was not the compiler's intention that the reader should agree 
with everything included. The entries do serve to set forth a signifi- 
cant picture of the person. This will be another valuable resource vol- 
ume for any public speaker- -whether lecturer, teacher, or preacher. It 
will also prove rewarding if kept handy for brief browsing. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 


Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1972. 126 pp. $2.95. 

Kenneth N. Taylor has the ability to put difficult subjects inco 
children's language. He has written several devotional books for the 
younger set. This reviewed book is good, but does not measure up to 
his other works. Originally appearing as I See in 1958, this volume has 


been retitled, revised, and newly illustrated. The flyleaf and pictures 
are attractive and appropriate. But the lessons with story applications 
lack the challenge and captivation of his other works. To the author's 
credit, Dr. Taylor has taken difficult doctrinal subjects including the 
Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes for this book. 

The reviewer read the thirty lessons to his six year old daughter. 
She seemed somewhat disinterested in the book as a whole. Dr. Taylor 
is the past director of Moody Press and presently holds the position of 
president of Tyndale Publishing House, Wheaton, Illinois. He authored 
The Living Bible , a popular paraphrase of the Bible. 

James H. Gabhart 
First Baptist Church 
Chesterton, Indiana 

SALVATION. By Lewis Sperry Chafer. Zondervan Publishing House, 

Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 149 pp. $1.95 paper. 

A valuable reprint of a forceful, evangelical, dispensational study 
of the doctrine of salvation which has received numerous warm personal 
and press recommendations since its original appearance in 1917. It is 
a clear unfolding of the great doctrines of the cross, the condition of 
salvation, assurance, rewards, and the security of the believer. This 
is the seventh reprint since 1965. A scriptural as well as a subject 
index add to its value. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 

THE RSI/ HANVV CONCORDANCE. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, 1972. 191 pp. $1.25 paper. 

This reprint of the original 1962 edition is a valuable study aid 
for regular users of the Revised Standard Version, or for those who 
wish to check on its terminology. It is a limited concordance, aimed 
at reflecting the contents of Scripture for the average reader. Some 300 
key theological terms receive proportionally heavier treatment, since 
they reflect the significant themes of Scripture. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 


THIS VkV . Edited by James W. Reapsome. Zondervan Publishing House, 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1972. 370 pp. $3.95. 

This book of daily devotional readings consists entirely of Scrip- 
ture quotations. The difference is that all quotations are taken from 
the Modern Language Bible (the New Berkeley Version). The selections 
for each day center around a common theme which is indicated by the 
quotation at the head of the page. A six-page topical index is valuable 
as indicating the wide variety of topics touched upon in these readings. 
This is a modern version of the familiar all-Scripture devotional Daily 
L1 K ht - 

D. Edmond Hiebert 

Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 

A TRANSPARENT WOMAN. By Phyllis Thompson. Zondervan Publishing 

House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1971. 190 pp. $1.25. (British title, 
A London Sparrow ). 

Here is the completed story of Gladys Aylward, missionary to 
the Chinese, whose adventurous story was first told to the world in Alan 
Burgess's The Small Woman . This highly readable and challenging vol- 
ume gives the whole story of her exploits, terminating with her closing 
years in Taiwan. A valuable addition to any church library or as a gift 
to young Christians to stimulate missionary interest through the story 
of a singular, devoted life. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 

Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 

LOVE GOES ON FOREl/ER. Marvin K. Mayers, compiler, David D. 

Koechel, designer. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Mich- 
igan, 1972. 64 pp. $2.95. 

Here is an appropriate gift volume for the newly married. It is 
attractive in format and precious in its message. It explores the mean- 
ing of Christian marriage through brief quotations, poetry, short essays, 
and beautiful pictures. Suitable for the newly married as well as those 
no longer newly married. 

D. Edmond Hiebert 
Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary 


HOW JESUS WON MEN. By L. R. Scarborough. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972 (re- 
print). 290 pp. $2.95, paper. 

Grand Rapids, 1972 (reprint). 238 pp. $2.95, paper. 
LIVING IS NOW. By D. A. Blaiklock. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 127 pp. 

$1. 50, paper. 
PREACHER AFLAME! By Donald E. Demaray. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 87 

pp. $1.25. 
GALATIANS. Andrew W. Blackwood, Jr. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972 (reprint) . 

86 pp. $1.25. 
BASIC BIBLE DOCTRINE (A Programmed Text). Houston T. Eldridge. Baker Book House, 

Grand Rapids, 1972. 58 pp. $.95. 
PLAIN TALK ON GALATIANS. Manford G. Gutzke. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 

175 pp. $1.95, paper. 
OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY: Basic Issues in the Current Debate. By Gerhard Hasel. Wm. 

B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, 1972. 103 pp. $1.95, paper. 
THE STRUCTURE OF BIBLICAL AUTHORITY. By Meredith G. Kline. Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub- 
lishing Co., Grand Rapids, 1972. 183 pp. $2.95, paper. 

B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, 1972. 86 pp. $2.45, paper. 
BORN TO SERVE. Manford Geo. Gutzke. Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, 1972. 137 pp. 

THE REPRODUCERS. Chuck Smith and Hugh Steven. Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, 

1972. 146 pp. $1.95, paper. 
THE EXPLO STORY. By Paul Eshelman and Norman Rohrer. Gospel Light Publications, Glen- 
dale (Co-published with Campus Crusade for Christ), 1972. Ill pp. $1.45, paper. 
INSIGHT, AUTHORITY AND POWER. By Peter Schouls. Wedge Publishing Foundation, 1972. 

46 pp. $1.95, paper. 
ROMANS: A LETTER TO NON-CONFORMISTS. By Robert H. Baylis. InterVarsity Press, 

Downers Grove, Illinois, 1972. 70 pp. $1.25, paper. 
REVOLUTION IN ROME. By David F. Wells. InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 

1970. 149 pp. $4.95, cloth. 
WHERE DO I GO TO BUY HAPPINESS? Elizabeth Skoglund. InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, 

niinois, 1972. 157 pp. $3.95, cloth. 
TO CHINA . . . WITH LOVE, 17th ed. , originally issued under the title, A RETROSPECT. By 

Hudson Taylor. Bethany Fellowship, inc., Minneapolis, n. d. 159 pp. $1.25, paper. 
FAITH FOR THE TIME. By Alan Redpath. Fleming H. Revell Co., Old Tappan, New Jersey, 

1972. 160 pp. $3.95, cloth. 
THE HUNGER OF THE HEART. Robert H. Miller. The Brethren Press, Elgin, Illinois, 1972. 

96 pp. $2.95, paper. 
PATTERNS FOR PRAYER. By V. Gilbert Beers. Fleming H. Revell Co. , 1972. 95 pp. $2.95, 

THE CHRISTIAN HOME IN A CHANGING WORLD. By Gene Getz. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972 . 

107 pp. $1.95, paper. 
THE CHRIST FOR EVERY DAY. By Jeanette W. Lockerbie. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 

95 pp. $1.50, paper. 
2 CORINTHIANS , A Self-Study Guide. By Irving L. Jensen. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 108 

pp. $1.50, paper. 
MAN'S PROBLEMS, GOD'S ANSWERS. By J. Dwight Pentecost. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 

192 pp. $1.95. 
CLASSICAL EVANGELICAL ESSAYS in Old Testament Interpretation. Compiled and edited by 

Walter C. Kaiser, Jr. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1972. 265 pp. $3.95, paper. 
WHERE IS HISTORY GOING? By John Warwick Montgomery. Bethany Fellowship, Inc. Minnea- 
polis, 1969. 250 pp. $5.95, cloth. 
TARGUM AND TESTAMENT. By Martin McNamara. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 

Grand Rapids, 1972. 227 pp. $3.45. 
A BIBLICAL THEOLOGY OF MISSIONS. George W. Peters. Moody Press, Chicago, 1972. 368 

pp. $6. 95. 
ENCOUNTER WITH GOD. By Morton Kelsey. Bethany Fellowship, Inc. , Minneapolis,. 1972. 

281 pp. $5.95, cloth. 
A COMMENTARY ON THE MINOR PROPHETS. By Homer Hailey. Baker Book House, Grand 

Rapids, 1972. 428 pp. $6.95, cloth. 



WHO IS THIS MAN JESUS? By Kenneth Taylor, (The complete life of Jesus from the Living 
Bible) - Regal Div. , Gospel Light Publications, Glendale, co-published with Tyndale 
in the U.S. and Britain. 275 pp. $1.45. 

YOU WILL NEVER BE THE SAME. By Basilea Schlink. Dimension Books, Bethany Fellowship, 
Minneapolis, 1972. 189 pp. $1.45. 

WHY CHURCHES DIE. By Hollis L. Green. Bethany Fellowship, Minneapolis, 1972. 219 pp. 

THE DUST OF DEATH. By Os Guinness. InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1973. 
419 pp. $4.95, paper; $7.95, cloth. 

DWIGHT L. MOODY. Intro, by Charles R. Erdman. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, re- 
printed, 1972. 256 pp. $2.95.